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Evidence suggests that neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian brain, and that various stimuli, for example, ischemia/hypoxia, enhance the generation of neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and their migration into the olfactory bulb. In a mouse stroke model, focal ischemia results in activation of neural progenitor cells followed by(More)
Activity levels of cytochrome oxidase, acid phosphatase, and NADPH diaphorase were examined in the perikarya of immunohistochemically identified Renshaw cells from sections of rat lumbar spinal cord. Renshaw cell profiles were identified on the basis of their characteristic anti-gephyrin-immunofluorescent labelling. Intrasomatic densities of enzyme(More)
Long-term treatment with glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 or its analog can improve insulin sensitivity. However, continuous administration is required due to its short half-life. We hypothesized that continuous production of therapeutic levels of GLP-1 in vivo by a gene therapy strategy may remit hyperglycemia and maintain prolonged normoglycemia. We produced(More)
Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury is characterized by the development of inflammatory response, in which vascular macrophages and endogenous microglia are involved. Recent studies showed marked induction of hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (HPGDS) after ischemic/reperfusion injury and its localization in microglia, but the molecular mechanism(s) of(More)
Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase is a key enzyme in synthesis of prostaglandin D. Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase is expressed in microglia of the developing mouse brain. This study determined the serial changes and cellular localization of hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase, and its role in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury using(More)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for stroke and it exacerbates tissue damage after ischemic insult. Diabetes is one of the important causes of the progression of white matter lesion, however, the pathological mechanisms remain unclear. The present study evaluated the influences of type 2 DM on ischemic subcortical white matter injury and the(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) release to nerve terminals in the central nervous system is crucial in synaptic transmission and neuronal plasticity. However, BDNF release peripherally from primary afferent neurons has not been investigated. In the present study, we show that BDNF is synthesized by primary afferent neurons located in the dorsal(More)
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