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Graphs are widely used to model complex structured data such as XML documents, protein networks, and chemical compounds. One of the fundamental problems in graph databases is efficient search and retrieval of graphs using indexing techniques. In this paper, we study the problem of indexing graph databases using frequent subtrees as indexing structures.(More)
Multiscale entropy (MSE) has been widely used to quantify a system's complexity by taking into account the multiple time scales inherent in physiologic time series. The method, however, is biased toward the coarse scale, i.e., low-frequency components due to the progressive smoothing operations. In addition, the algorithm for extracting the different scales(More)
Recent studies recognize that Hypocretin system (also known as Orexin) plays a critical role in sleep/wake disorders and feeding behaviors. However, little is known about the regulation of the Hypocretin system. It is also known that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is involved in the regulation of sleep/wake cycle. Here, we test our hypothesis that the(More)
Myofibroblasts are implicated in pathological stromal responses associated with lung fibrosis. One prominent phenotypic marker of fully differentiated myofibroblasts is the polymerized, thick cytoplasmic filaments containing newly synthesized α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). These α-SMA-containing cytoplasmic filaments are important for myofibroblast(More)
Myofibroblasts are effector cells in fibrotic disorders that synthesize and remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM). This study investigated the role of the Src kinase pathway in myofibroblast activation in vitro and fibrogenesis in vivo. The profibrotic cytokine, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), induced rapid activation of Src kinase, which led to(More)
An easier assessment model would be helpful for high-throughput screening of Aeromonas virulence. The previous study indicated the potential of Tetrahymena as a permissive model to examine virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila. Here our aim was to assess virulence of Aeromonas spp. using two model hosts, a zebrafish assay and Tetrahymena-Aeromonas co-culture,(More)
Entropy, a measure of the regularity of a time series, has long been used to quantify the complexity of brain dynamics. Given the multiple spatiotemporal scales inherent in the brain, traditional entropy analysis based on a single scale is not adequate to accurately describe the underlying nonlinear dynamics. Intrinsic mode entropy (IMEn) is a recent(More)
Atherosclerosis (AS) is an inflammatory disease involved in vascular inflammatory injury. The inflammasome is an important part of inflammatory diseases and participates in the vascular inflammatory injury. Resveratrol (RSV) possesses anti-inflammatory activities, but its effects on inflammasomes during vascular injury remain unclear. This study focused on(More)
Generalized flash suppression (GFS), in which a salient visual stimulus can be rendered invisible despite continuous retinal input, provides a rare opportunity to directly study the neural mechanism of visual perception. Previous work based on linear methods, such as spectral analysis, on local field potential (LFP) during GFS has shown that the LFP power(More)