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The application of electrospray ionization hybrid ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (LC/MS-IT-TOF) in the rapid characterization of in vitro metabolites of quinocetone was developed. Metabolites formed in rat liver microsomes were separated using a VP-ODS column with gradient elution. Multiple(More)
To investigate the reproductive toxicity and teratogenic potential of quinocetone, a growth promoting agent, Wistar rats were fed different diets containing 0, 50, 300 and 1800 mg/kg quinocetone or 300 mg/kg olaquindox. Groups of 15 males and 30 females (F(0)) were fed through a 10-week prebreed period as well as during mating, gestation, parturition and(More)
Mequindox (MEQ) is a synthetic quinoxaline 1,4-dioxides (QdNOs) derivative which can effectively improve growth and feed efficiency in animals. This study was to investigate the dose-dependent long-term toxicity in the adrenal of male rats exposed to 180 days of MEQ feed. Our data demonstrated that high doses of MEQ in the diet for 180 days led to adrenal(More)
The G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) was deorphanized in 2003 as a receptor of medium- and long-chain free fatty acids (FFAs), now also called FFA receptor 1 (FFAR1). Studies have shown that GPR40 not only directly mediates FFA amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion but also indirectly enhances insulin secretion by stimulating incretin(More)
Olaquindox, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methyl-2-quinoxalinecarboxamide-1,4-di-N-oxide, is one of the quinoxaline-dioxides used widely as an antimicrobial growth promoter in pig production. Its toxicities were reported to be closely related to the formation of N-oxide reductive metabolites. The present study presents the metabolism and N-oxide reduction of(More)
Quinoxaline-1,4-dioxides (QdNOs) are the potent heterocyclic N-oxides with interesting biological properties such as antibacterial, anticandida, antitubercular, anticancer and antiprotozoal activities. Here, we tested and compared the mequindox (MEQ) for mutagenic abilities in a battery of different short term tests according to OECD guidelines. When(More)
BACKGROUND In rodents, hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression appears to be regulated by melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) activity. The impact of MC4R genetic variation on circulating BDNF in humans is unknown. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to compare BDNF concentrations of subjects with loss-of-function (LOF) and(More)
A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model for enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in chicken based on retrospective data was developed. Plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin were determined in blood samples from chicken administered either enrofloxacin via oral and intravenous routes or ciprofloxacin via intravenous(More)
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