Menachem Shoham

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Colicins kill E. coli by a process that involves binding to a surface receptor, entering the cell, and, finally, intoxicating it. The lethal action of colicin E3 is a specific cleavage in the ribosomal decoding A site. The crystal structure of colicin E3, reported here in a binary complex with its immunity protein (IP), reveals a Y-shaped molecule with the(More)
Several models of agonist binding to G protein-coupled 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT] (serotonin) receptors have highlighted the potential importance of highly conserved aromatic residues for ligand binding and agonist efficacy. In this study, we tested these models by constructing and characterizing a number of point mutations of conserved and nonconserved(More)
The neurohypophysial hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a cyclic nonpeptide whose actions are mediated by the stimulation of specific G protein--coupled membrane receptors pharmacologically classified into V1-vascular (V1R), V2-renal (V2R) and V3-pituitary (V3R) AVP receptor subtypes. The random screening of chemical compounds and optimization of lead(More)
Haloarcula marismortui is an archaebacterium that flourishes in the world's saltiest body of water, the Dead Sea. The cytosol of this organism is a supersaturated salt solution in which proteins are soluble and active. The crystal structure of a 2Fe-2S ferredoxin from H. marismortui determined at 1.9 A is similar to those of plant-type 2Fe-2S ferredoxins of(More)
Staphylococci are a major health threat because of increasing resistance to antibiotics. An alternative to antibiotic treatment is preventing virulence by inhibition of bacterial cell-to-cell communication using the quorum-sensing inhibitor RNAIII-inhibiting peptide (RIP). In this work, we identified 2',5-di-O-galloyl-d-hamamelose (hamamelitannin) as a(More)
Plasmodium vivax invasion of human erythrocytes requires interaction of the P. vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) with its host receptor, the Duffy antigen (Fy) on the erythrocyte surface. Consequently, PvDBP is a leading vaccine candidate. The binding domain of PvDBP lies in a cysteine-rich portion of the molecule called region II (PvDBPII). PvDBPII(More)
Echoviruses are enteroviruses that belong to Picornaviridae. Many echoviruses use decay-accelerating factor (DAF) as their cellular receptor. DAF is a glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored complement regulatory protein found on most cell surfaces. It functions to protect cells from complement attack. The cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of(More)
  • M Shoham
  • Journal of molecular biology
  • 1993
Cholera toxin peptide 3 (CTP3) is a 15-residue peptide corresponding in sequence to an immunogenic loop on the surface of the B-subunits of both cholera toxin and the heat-labile toxin from Escherichia coli. TE33 is the Fab fragment of a monoclonal antibody elicited against CTP3. The crystal structure of the TE33-CTP3 complex at 2.3 A resolution reveals an(More)
The affinity of the nonpeptide antagonist OPC-21268 is greater for the rat V(1) arginine vasopressin (AVP) receptor (V(1)R) than for the human V(1)R. Site-specific mutagenesis was carried out to identify the residues that determine interspecies selectivity for nonpeptide antagonist binding. The introduction of rat amino acids in position 224, 310, 324, or(More)
AVP receptors represent a logical target for drug development. As a new class of therapeutic agents, orally active AVP analogs could be used to treat several human pathophysiological conditions including neurogenic diabetes insipidus, the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of AVP (SIADH), congestive heart failure, arterial hypertension, liver cirrhosis,(More)