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The carabid beetle Galerita lecontei has a pair of abdominal defensive glands that secrete a mixture of formic acid, acetic acid, and lipophilic components (long-chain hydrocarbons and esters). Formic acid, at the concentration of 80%, is the principal constituent. The beetle ejects the secretion as a spray, which it aims accurately toward parts of the body(More)
Neuronal pigments of melanic type were identified in the putamen, cortex, cerebellum, and other major regions of human brain. These pigments consist of granules 30 nm in size, contained in organelles together with lipid droplets, and they accumulate in aging, reaching concentrations as high as 1.5-2.6 microg/mg tissue in major brain regions. These pigments,(More)
The larva of the green lacewing Chrysopa slossonae lives in colonies of the wooly alder aphid Prociphilus tesselatus upon which it feeds. It disguises itself as its prey by plucking some of the waxy "wool" from the bodies of the aphids and applying this material to its own back. The investiture protects it from assault by the ants that ordinarily "shepherd"(More)
The flower of Hypericum calycinum, which appears uniformly yellow to humans, bears a UV pattern, presumably visible to insects. Two categories of pigments, flavonoids and dearomatized isoprenylated phloroglucinols (DIPs), are responsible for the UV demarcations of this flower. Flavonoids had been shown previously to function as floral UV pigments, but DIPs(More)
The larva of the green lacewing (Ceraeochrysa cubana) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) is a natural predator of eggs of Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae), a moth that sequesters pyrrolizidine alkaloids from its larval foodplant (Fabaceae, Crotalaria spp.). Utetheisa eggs are ordinarily endowed with the alkaloid. Alkaloid-free Utetheisa eggs, produced(More)
Male Neopyrochroa flabellata have a natural affinity for cantharidin (Spanish fly). They are attracted to cantharidin baits in the field and feed on the compound if it is offered to them in the laboratory. Males that ingest cantharidin secrete cantharidin from a cephalic gland. Females sample secretion from this gland during courtship and mate(More)
The bombardier beetle Metrius contractus discharges its defensive secretion as a froth that clings to its body. When attacked from the rear, it allows the froth to build up over the gland openings near the abdominal tip; when attacked from the front, it conveys the secretion forwards along special elytral tracks. M. contractus has two-chambered defensive(More)
The larva of the tortoise beetle, Hemisphaerota cyanea (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae), constructs a thatch from long filamentous fecal strands, beneath which it is totally concealed. The thatch is not discarded at molting but is enlarged by addition of strands as the larva grows. Thatch construction begins when the larva hatches from the egg. Pupation occurs(More)
The thyridid caterpillar, Calindoea trifascialis, when disturbed, emits a defensive secretion from two sac-like glands that open dorsolaterally on the first abdominal segment. The larva has two arm-like protuberances that project outward from the body just in front of the gland openings. These "arms", which are wetted by secretion when the larva activates(More)
The larva of the phengodid beetle, Phengodes laticollis, feeds on the millipede, Floridobolus penneri, without risking exposure to the repellent benzoquinones ordinarily ejected by the millipede from its defensive glands when attacked. The phengodid subdues the millipede by piercing the millipede's integument with its hollow sickle-shaped mandibles and(More)