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Neuronal pigments of melanic type were identified in the putamen, cortex, cerebellum, and other major regions of human brain. These pigments consist of granules 30 nm in size, contained in organelles together with lipid droplets, and they accumulate in aging, reaching concentrations as high as 1.5-2.6 microg/mg tissue in major brain regions. These pigments,(More)
The larva of the green lacewing Chrysopa slossonae lives in colonies of the wooly alder aphid Prociphilus tesselatus upon which it feeds. It disguises itself as its prey by plucking some of the waxy "wool" from the bodies of the aphids and applying this material to its own back. The investiture protects it from assault by the ants that ordinarily "shepherd"(More)
Neuromelanin (NM) is a peculiar biochemical component of several neurons in the Substantia Nigra (SN), the target area of the degenerative process in Parkinson Disease (PD). SN NM has peculiarities as to its composition and an impressive capacity of chelating metals, iron in particular, but not exclusively. Gaining insights into the structural and(More)
The larva of the tortoise beetle, Hemisphaerota cyanea (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae), constructs a thatch from long filamentous fecal strands, beneath which it is totally concealed. The thatch is not discarded at molting but is enlarged by addition of strands as the larva grows. Thatch construction begins when the larva hatches from the egg. Pupation occurs(More)
The millipede Polyxenus fasciculatus (Diplopoda; Polyxenida) defends itself against ants by use of a pair of bristle tufts at its rear. When attacked, it wipes the tufts against the ants, thereby causing these to become encumbered by bristles that detach from the tufts. Ants contaminated with bristles desist from their assault. The bristles have grappling(More)
Melanins are notoriously difficult to study because they are amorphous, insoluble and often associated with other biological materials. Consequently, there is a dearth of structural techniques to study this enigmatic pigment. Current models of melanin structure envision the stacking of planar structures. X ray diffraction has historically been used to(More)
Insects of the heteropteran families Pentatomidae (stink bugs) and Coreidae (squash bugs), when being eaten by the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes, attract flies of the family Milichiidae. The flies aggregate on the bugs and, as kleptoparasites, share in the spider's meal. Stink bugs and squash bugs typically eject defensive sprays when attacked; they(More)
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