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Plants have the ability to recognize and respond to a multitude of microorganisms. Recognition of pathogens results in a massive reprogramming of the plant cell to activate and deploy defense responses to halt pathogen growth. Such responses are associated with increased demands for energy, reducing equivalents, and carbon skeletons that are provided by(More)
UNLABELLED SUMMARY Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen causing disease in a wide range of plants. This review summarizes current knowledge of mechanisms employed by the fungus to parasitize its host with emphasis on biology, physiology and molecular aspects of pathogenicity. In addition, current tools for research and(More)
UNLABELLED Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is the most common rust disease of wheat. The fungus is an obligate parasite capable of producing infectious urediniospores as long as infected leaf tissue remains alive. Urediniospores can be wind-disseminated and infect host plants hundreds of kilometres from their source plant, which can result in wheat(More)
Fungal plant pathogens secrete effector molecules to establish disease on their hosts, and plants in turn use immune receptors to try to intercept these effectors. The tomato immune receptor Ve1 governs resistance to race 1 strains of the soil-borne vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium albo-atrum, but the corresponding Verticillium(More)
Cladosporium fulvum (syn. Passalora fulva) is a biotrophic fungal pathogen that causes leaf mold of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). During growth in the apoplast, the fungus establishes disease by secreting effector proteins, 10 of which have been characterized. We have previously shown that the Avr2 effector interacts with the apoplastic tomato Cys protease(More)
Sexual recombination drives genetic diversity in eukaryotic genomes and fosters adaptation to novel environmental challenges. Although strictly asexual microorganisms are often considered as evolutionary dead ends, they comprise many devastating plant pathogens. Presently, it remains unknown how such asexual pathogens generate the genetic variation that is(More)
During tomato leaf colonization, the biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum secretes several effector proteins into the apoplast. Eight effectors have previously been characterized and show no significant homology to each other or to other fungal genes. To discover novel C. fulvum effectors that might play a role in virulence, we utilized two-dimensional(More)
The wheat gene Lr34 confers partial resistance to all races of Puccinia triticina, the causal agent of wheat leaf rust. However, the biological basis for the exceptional durability of Lr34 is unclear. We used the Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array to compare transcriptional changes of near-isogenic lines of Thatcher wheat in a compatible interaction, an(More)
Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), caused by the fungal pathogen Cercospora beticola, is the most important foliar disease of sugar beet worldwide. Control strategies for CLS rely heavily on quinone outside inhibitor (QOI) fungicides. Despite the dependence on QOIs for disease control for more than a decade, a comprehensive survey of QOI sensitivity has not(More)
Early blight, caused by Alternaria solani, is an economically important foliar disease of potato in several production areas of the United States. Few potato cultivars possess resistance to early blight; therefore, the application of fungicides is the primary means of achieving disease control. Previous work in our laboratory reported resistance to the(More)