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A transplantable, murine reticulum cell sarcoma is described which exhibits the cytologic, adherence, and phagocytic properties of macrophages. It forms specific rosettes with erythrocytes in the presence of the corresponding anti-serum. The ascites cells mediate antibody-dependent cellular immunity as assayed by release of radioactivity from 51Cr-labeled(More)
The immune system, like many systems responsive to specific stimuli, requires feedback regulation. The key regulatory element determining antigen-specific responsiveness is the effector T helper. As the response tends to overshoot, a feedback control of the magnitude of the response is critical to avoid immunopathology. This is the proposed role of the(More)
An immune system is required in any host that evolves slowly relative to the pathogens that attack it. This immune system must somatically generate and regulate new specificities. We propose a mechanism that results in a self-nonself discrimination that is a one-time regulatory event, which occurs early in development when maternal protection ensures an(More)
The Standard Model of T-cell receptor (TCR) function is the distillation of many views. Here we provide a summary that is intended to capture the flavour of the whole, without assigning particular blame, or credit, to any one part. The Standard Model is based on the notion of a single TCR-combining site that sums the binding contributions of MHC and peptide(More)
Mitogen-induced cytotoxicity was studied by culturing mouse spleen cells with an optimum mitogenic dose of concanavalin A (Con A) for 2 days and, after washing, assessing their ability to lyse tumor targets. We show that rapid lysis occurs only when the correct concentration of an agglutinating mitogen (phytohemagglutinin P (PHA) or Con A) is present in the(More)
This article describes the functionality of a cellular automata-based immune system simulator, which we call SIS (synthetic immune system). SIS is based on descriptive cellular states and rules that define transitions between these states to model an entire immune system. Through the use of this program, an immunologist can test the validity of a proposed(More)