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In genetic studies on the sex pheromone communication system of two races of European corn borer, which use opposite pheromone blends of the E and Z compounds, it was found that antennal olfactory cell response amplitudes to the two compounds were controlled by an autosomal factor, whereas behavioral responses to the blends were controlled by a sex-linked(More)
Unlike the narrow response windows exhibited by the parent races, hybrid male European corn borers resulting from crosses of the E and Z races respond to a wide range of sex pheromone blends. The F1 response profile consists of some individuals that respond to both the Z pheromone and the 65∶35 E/Z blend produced by F1 females. Some F1 males fail to respond(More)
Low-dose images obtained by electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) are often affected by blurring caused by sample motion during electron beam exposure, degrading signal especially at high resolution. We show here that we can align frames of movies, recorded with a direct electron detector during beam exposure of rotavirus double-layered particles, thereby(More)
Single-particle electron cryomicroscopy is undergoing a technical revolution due to the recent developments of direct detectors. These new recording devices detect electrons directly (i.e. without conversion into light) and feature significantly improved detective quantum efficiencies and readout rates as compared to photographic films or CCDs. We evaluated(More)
The pheromone-mediated flight behavior of male Oriental fruit moths was observed in the field to test the hypothesis that male activation far downwind of a female is initiated by the major, or most abundant, component of the pheromone blend. Males responded at significantly greater distances to the three-component pheromone blend produced by females than to(More)
In the present study male redbanded leafroller (Argyrotaenia velutinana), cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni), and Oriental fruit moths, (Grapholita molesta), were tested in a flight tunnel to (1) the major pheromone component, (2) theZ/E pheromone component mixtures for Oriental fruit moth and redbanded leafroller, (3) and the female-released blends, over a(More)
Recent developments in detector hardware and image-processing software have revolutionized single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) and led to a wave of near-atomic resolution (typically ∼3.3 Å) reconstructions. Reaching resolutions higher than 3 Å is a prerequisite for structure-based drug design and for cryoEM to become widely interesting to(More)
The single-coat protein (CP) of bacteriophage Qβ self-assembles into T = 3 icosahedral virus-like particles (VLPs), of interest for a wide range of applications. These VLPs are very stable, but identification of the specific molecular determinants of this stability is lacking. To investigate these determinants along with manipulations that confer more(More)
NOSs are homodimeric multidomain enzymes responsible for producing NO. In mammals, NO acts as an intercellular messenger in a variety of signaling reactions, as well as a cytotoxin in the innate immune response. Mammals possess three NOS isoforms--inducible, endothelial, and neuronal NOS--that are composed of an N-terminal oxidase domain and a C-terminal(More)
Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is the primary nitric oxide (NO) receptor in mammals and a central component of the NO-signaling pathway. The NO-signaling pathways mediate diverse physiological processes, including vasodilation, neurotransmission, and myocardial functions. sGC is a heterodimer assembled from two homologous subunits, each comprised of four(More)