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Growth factors (GFs) are critical in tissue repair, but their translation to clinical use has been modest. Physiologically, GF interactions with extracellular matrix (ECM) components facilitate localized and spatially regulated signaling; therefore, we reasoned that the lack of ECM binding in their clinically used forms could underlie the limited(More)
Tumor expression of the lymphangiogenic factor VEGF-C is correlated with metastasis and poor prognosis, and although VEGF-C enhances transport to the draining lymph node (dLN) and antigen exposure to the adaptive immune system, its role in tumor immunity remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that VEGF-C promotes immune tolerance in murine melanoma. In(More)
Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) refers to the mobilization of cholesterol on HDL particles (HDL-C) from extravascular tissues to plasma, ultimately for fecal excretion. Little is known about how HDL-C leaves peripheral tissues to reach plasma. We first used 2 models of disrupted lymphatic drainage from skin--1 surgical and the other genetic--to(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs), and more recently lymph node stromal cells (LNSCs), have been described to tolerize self-reactive CD8(+) T cells in LNs. Although LNSCs express MHCII, it is unknown whether they can also impact CD4(+) T cell functions. We show that the promoter IV (pIV) of class II transactivator (CIITA), the master regulator of MHCII expression,(More)
Antigen targeting and adjuvancy schemes that respectively facilitate delivery of antigen to dendritic cells and elicit their activation have been explored in vaccine development. Here we investigate whether nanoparticles can be used as a vaccine platform by targeting lymph node-residing dendritic cells via interstitial flow and activating these cells by in(More)
Most carcinomas spread to distant sites through lymphatic vessels. Several preclinical and clinical studies have shown a positive correlation between the incidence of lymph node metastasis and secretion of the lymphatic growth factor vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) by tumor cells, suggesting tumor lymphangiogenesis as an escape mechanism.(More)
The engineering of materials that can modulate the immune system is an emerging field that is developing alongside immunology. For therapeutic ends such as vaccine development, materials are now being engineered to deliver antigens through specific intracellular pathways, allowing better control of the way in which antigens are presented to one of the key(More)
Tumor manipulation of host immunity is important for tumor survival and invasion. Many cancers secrete CCL21, a chemoattractant for various leukocytes and lymphoid tissue inducer cells, which drive lymphoid neogenesis. CCL21 expression by melanoma tumors in mice was associated with an immunotolerant microenvironment, which included the induction of(More)
Stromal fibroblast senescence has been linked to ageing-associated cancer risk. However, density and proliferation of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are frequently increased. Loss or downmodulation of the Notch effector CSL (also known as RBP-Jκ) in dermal fibroblasts is sufficient for CAF activation and ensuing keratinocyte-derived tumours. We report(More)
Visualizing the dynamic behaviors of immune cells in living tissue has dramatically increased our understanding of how cells interact with their surroundings, contributing important insights into mechanisms of leukocyte trafficking, tumor cell invasion, and T cell education by dendritic cells, among others. Despite substantial advances with various(More)