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Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) refers to the mobilization of cholesterol on HDL particles (HDL-C) from extravascular tissues to plasma, ultimately for fecal excretion. Little is known about how HDL-C leaves peripheral tissues to reach plasma. We first used 2 models of disrupted lymphatic drainage from skin--1 surgical and the other genetic--to(More)
Tumor expression of the lymphangiogenic factor VEGF-C is correlated with metastasis and poor prognosis, and although VEGF-C enhances transport to the draining lymph node (dLN) and antigen exposure to the adaptive immune system, its role in tumor immunity remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that VEGF-C promotes immune tolerance in murine melanoma. In(More)
Growth factors (GFs) are critical in tissue repair, but their translation to clinical use has been modest. Physiologically, GF interactions with extracellular matrix (ECM) components facilitate localized and spatially regulated signaling; therefore, we reasoned that the lack of ECM binding in their clinically used forms could underlie the limited(More)
Interstitial flow emanates from tumors into the microenvironment where it promotes tumor cell invasion. Fibroblasts are key constituents of the tumor stroma that modulate the mechanical environment by matrix remodeling and contraction. Here, we explore how interstitial fluid flow affects fibroblast-tumor cell interactions. Using a 3-dimensional invasion(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs), and more recently lymph node stromal cells (LNSCs), have been described to tolerize self-reactive CD8(+) T cells in LNs. Although LNSCs express MHCII, it is unknown whether they can also impact CD4(+) T cell functions. We show that the promoter IV (pIV) of class II transactivator (CIITA), the master regulator of MHCII expression,(More)
Antigen targeting and adjuvancy schemes that respectively facilitate delivery of antigen to dendritic cells and elicit their activation have been explored in vaccine development. Here we investigate whether nanoparticles can be used as a vaccine platform by targeting lymph node-residing dendritic cells via interstitial flow and activating these cells by in(More)
Vaccines aim to protect against or treat diseases through manipulation of the immune response, promoting either immunity or tolerance. In the former case, vaccines generate antibodies and T cells poised to protect against future pathogen encounter or attack diseased cells such as tumours; in the latter case, which is far less developed, vaccines block(More)
Tumor manipulation of host immunity is important for tumor survival and invasion. Many cancers secrete CCL21, a chemoattractant for various leukocytes and lymphoid tissue inducer cells, which drive lymphoid neogenesis. CCL21 expression by melanoma tumors in mice was associated with an immunotolerant microenvironment, which included the induction of(More)
The tumor microenvironment (TME) consists of cells, soluble factors, signaling molecules, extracellular matrix, and mechanical cues that can promote neoplastic transformation, support tumor growth and invasion, protect the tumor from host immunity, foster therapeutic resistance, and provide niches for dormant metastases to thrive. An American Association(More)
Most carcinomas spread to distant sites through lymphatic vessels. Several preclinical and clinical studies have shown a positive correlation between the incidence of lymph node metastasis and secretion of the lymphatic growth factor vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) by tumor cells, suggesting tumor lymphangiogenesis as an escape mechanism.(More)