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This paper presents an overview of the anatomy, physiology, and biology of the lymphatic system specifically relevant to lymphatic drug delivery. We will briefly review the classic fluid and solute transport literature, and also examine the current research in lymphatic endothelial cell biology and tumor metastasis in the lymphatics because of the(More)
Interstitial flow plays important roles in the morphogenesis, function, and pathogenesis of tissues. To investigate these roles and exploit them for tissue engineering or to overcome barriers to drug delivery, a comprehensive consideration of the interstitial space and how it controls and affects such processes is critical. Here we attempt to review the(More)
Antigen-presenting dendritic cells often acquire foreign antigens in peripheral tissues such as the skin. Optimal encounter with naive T cells for the presentation of these antigens requires that the dendritic cells migrate to draining lymph nodes through lymphatic vessels. In this article, we review important aspects of what is known about dendritic-cell(More)
The emergence of tissue engineering raises new possibilities for the study of complex physiological and pathophysiological processes in vitro. Many tools are now available to create 3D tissue models in vitro, but the blueprints for what to make have been slower to arrive. We discuss here some of the 'design principles' for recreating the interwoven set of(More)
Antigen targeting and adjuvancy schemes that respectively facilitate delivery of antigen to dendritic cells and elicit their activation have been explored in vaccine development. Here we investigate whether nanoparticles can be used as a vaccine platform by targeting lymph node-residing dendritic cells via interstitial flow and activating these cells by in(More)
The extracellular matrix (ECM) may contribute to the drug resistance of a solid tumor by preventing the penetration of therapeutic agents. We measured differences in interstitial resistance to macromolecule (IgG) motion in four tumor types and found an unexpected correspondence between transport resistance and the mechanical stiffness. The interstitial(More)
CCR7 is implicated in lymph node metastasis of cancer, but its role is obscure. We report a mechanism explaining how interstitial flow caused by lymphatic drainage directs tumor cell migration by autocrine CCR7 signaling. Under static conditions, lymphatic endothelium induced CCR7-dependent chemotaxis of tumor cells through 3D matrices. However,(More)
The differentiation of fibroblasts to contractile myofibroblasts, which is characterized by de novo expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), is crucial for wound healing and a hallmark of tissue scarring and fibrosis. These processes often follow inflammatory events, particularly in soft tissues such as skin, lung and liver. Although(More)
The lymphatic system is important in tissue fluid balance regulation, immune cell trafficking, edema, and cancer metastasis, yet very little is known about the sequence of events that initiate and coordinate lymphangiogenesis. Here, we characterize the process of lymphatic regeneration by uniquely correlating interstitial fluid flow and lymphatic(More)
RATIONALE Lymphatic transport of peripheral interstitial fluid and dendritic cells (DCs) is important for both adaptive immunity and maintenance of tolerance to self-antigens. Lymphatic drainage can change rapidly and dramatically on tissue injury or inflammation, and therefore increased fluid flow may serve as an important early cue for inflammation;(More)