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It is difficult to describe hydration status and hydration extremes because fluid intakes and excretion patterns of free-living individuals are poorly documented and regulation of human water balance is complex and dynamic. This investigation provided reference values for euhydration (i.e., body mass, daily fluid intake, serum osmolality; M +/- SD); it also(More)
CONTEXT Rectal temperature is recommended by the National Athletic Trainers' Association as the criterion standard for recognizing exertional heat stroke, but other body sites commonly are used to measure temperature. Few authors have assessed the validity of the thermometers that measure body temperature at these sites in athletic settings. OBJECTIVE To(More)
OBJECTIVE Very low-carbohydrate diets are widely used for weight loss yet few controlled studies have determined how these diets impact cardiovascular risk factors compared to more traditional low-fat weight loss diets. The primary purpose of this study was to compare a very low-carbohydrate and a low-fat diet on fasting blood lipids, LDL subclasses,(More)
This investigation evaluated the effects of a nutritional supplement (the organic osmolyte betaine) in rehydration solutions, with and without carbohydrate and electrolytes. Ten male runners ((mean +/- SD) age, 20 +/- 2 years; weight, 70.6 +/- 6.8 kg; maximal aerobic power, 63.5 +/- 4.1 mL O2 x kg(-1) x min(-1)) dehydrated to -2.7% of body weight. They next(More)
The stimulatory effects of acute caffeine intake on choice reaction time, mood state, and visual vigilance are well established. Little research exists, however, on the effects of chronic caffeine ingestion on psychomotor tasks. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 5 days of controlled caffeine intake on cognitive and(More)
INTRODUCTION Authorities advise individuals to refrain from caffeine intake before or during exercise, especially when performed in the heat, due to potential fluid-electrolyte imbalances that exaggerate physiological strain. Yet, military personnel are often deployed to hot environments and must perform under sleep-deprived conditions where caffeine would(More)
This investigation determined if 3 levels of controlled caffeine consumption affected fluid-electrolyte balance and renal function differently. Healthy males (mean +/- standard deviation; age, 21.6 +/- 3.3 y) consumed 3 mg caffeine . kg(-1) . d(-1). on days 1 to 6 (equilibration phase). On days 7 to 11 (treatment phase), subjects consumed either 0 mg (C0;(More)
CONTEXT Authors of most field studies have not observed decrements in physiologic function and performance with increases in dehydration, although authors of well-controlled laboratory studies have consistently reported this relationship. Investigators in these field studies did not control exercise intensity, a known modulator of body core temperature. (More)
CONTEXT Creatine monohydrate (CrM) use is highly prevalent in team sports (eg, football, lacrosse, ice hockey) and by athletes at the high school, college, professional, and recreational levels. Concerns have been raised about whether creatine use is associated with increased cramping, muscle injury, heat intolerance, and risk of dehydration. OBJECTIVE To(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of dehydration at a controlled relative intensity on physiological responses and trail running speed. Using a randomized, controlled crossover design in a field setting, 14 male and female competitive, endurance runners aged 30 ± 10.4 years completed 2 (hydrated [HY] and dehydrated [DHY]) submaximal(More)