Melissa R. Pitman

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The dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPIV) enzyme family contains both potential and proven therapeutic targets. Recent reports indicate the presence of DP8 and DP9 in peripheral blood lymphocytes, testis, lung, and brain. For a more comprehensive understanding of DP8 and DP9 tissue and cellular expression, mRNA and enzyme activity were examined. Many organs from(More)
FTY720 is a recently approved first line therapy for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. In this context, FTY720 is a pro-drug, with its anti-multiple sclerosis, immunosuppressive effects largely elicited following its phosphorylation by sphingosine kinase 2 and subsequent modulation of G protein-coupled sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 that(More)
N-terminal truncation of chemokines by proteases including dipeptidyl peptidase (DP) IV significantly alters their biological activity; generally ablating cognate G-protein coupled receptor engagement and often generating potent receptor antagonists. DP8 is a recently recognised member of the prolyl oligopeptidase gene family that includes DPIV. Since DPIV(More)
Dipeptidyl peptidases (DP) 8 and 9 are homologous, cytoplasmic N-terminal post-proline-cleaving enzymes that are anti-targets for the development of DP4 (DPPIV/CD26) inhibitors for treating type II diabetes. To date, DP8 and DP9 have been implicated in immune responses and cancer biology, but their pathophysiological functions and substrate repertoire(More)
1 We have used isolated arterial preparations from the rabbit and dog to investigate whether non-ionic iodinated radiographic contrast media (IRCM) modulate nitric oxide (NO) release. The tri-iodinated monomers iopromide and iohexol were compared with the hexa-iodinated dimer iodixanol. 2 The vasodilator effects of iohexol (300 mg ml-1) and iodixanol (320(More)
Sphingosine kinase (SK) 1 and 2 are lipid kinases that phosphorylate sphingosine to form sphingosine-1 phosphate, a potent signalling molecule with pleiotrophic effects. SK1 is commonly up-regulated in tumours and its inhibition or genetic ablation has been shown to slow tumour growth as well as sensitise cancer cells to other chemotherapeutics. Therefore,(More)
Sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) is an important regulator of cellular signalling that has gained recent attention as a potential target for anti-cancer therapies. SK1 activity, subcellular localization and oncogenic function are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at Ser225. ERK1/2 have been identified as the protein kinases responsible for(More)
Sphingosine kinases (SK) 1 and 2 are unique lipid kinases that phosphorylate sphingosine to form -sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). S1P is a bioactive molecule eliciting multiple effects both extracellularly via cell surface S1P receptors and intracellularly through a number of recently identified protein targets. The two enzymes arise from different genes,(More)
Sphingosine kinase (SK) 1 and 2 are lipid kinases that catalyse the formation of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a potent signalling molecule with a wide array of cellular effects. SK1 and 2 have been shown to be up-regulated in tumours and their genetic ablation or inhibition has been shown to slow tumour growth as well as sensitise cancer cells to(More)
While both human sphingosine kinases (SK1 and SK2) catalyze the generation of the pleiotropic signaling lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate, these enzymes appear to be functionally distinct. SK1 has well described roles in promoting cell survival, proliferation and neoplastic transformation. The roles of SK2, and its contribution to cancer, however, are much less(More)