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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mediated protein secretion and quality control have been shown to play an important role in immune responses in both animals and plants. In mammals, the ER membrane-located IRE1 kinase/endoribonuclease, a key regulator of unfolded protein response (UPR), is required for plasma cell development to accommodate massive secretion of(More)
Eosinophilic cholecystitis (EC) is a rare inflammatory condition of the gallbladder, confirmed by a cellular infiltrate comprised of more than 90% eosinophils in the gallbladder wall on histological examination. Although the etiology of EC is largely unknown, local autoimmune reactions within the gallbladder wall to inflammatory mediators from distal sites(More)
O1 The European Social Preferences Measurement (ESPM) study project: social cost value analysis, budget impact, commercial life cycle revenue management, and the economics of biopharmaceutical Research & Development (R&D) The cost of new medicines has never been as controversial as nowadays. Health care policy makers are concerned that rising drug prices(More)
Tunicamycin (Tm) sensitivity assays are a useful method for studies of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response in eukaryotic cells. While Tm sensitivity and Tm recovery assays have been previously described, these existing methods are time-consuming, labor intensive, and subjected to mechanical wounding. This study shows an improved(More)
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