Melissa R Andrews

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Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix restrict plasticity in the adult central nervous system and their digestion with chondroitinase reactivates plasticity. However the structures in the extracellular matrix that restrict plasticity are unknown. There are many changes in the extracellular matrix as critical periods for plasticity(More)
Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) in combination with rehabilitation has been shown to promote functional recovery in acute spinal cord injury. For clinical use, the optimal treatment window is concurrent with the beginning of rehabilitation, usually 2-4 weeks after injury. We show that ChABC is effective when given 4 weeks after injury combined with(More)
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are extracellular matrix structures surrounding cortical neuronal cell bodies and proximal dendrites and are involved in the control of brain plasticity and the closure of critical periods. Expression of the link protein Crtl1/Hapln1 in neurons has recently been identified as the key event triggering the formation of PNNs. Here we(More)
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) and Schwann cells (SCs) obtained from adult transgenic rats expressing alkaline phosphatase (AP) were studied following implantation into intact spinal cord and after dorsal column crush (DCC) injury, either within the lesion or near the lesion borders. We observed no evidence of migration of AP OECs or AP SCs after lesion(More)
Damaged CNS axons are prevented from regenerating by an environment containing many inhibitory factors. They also lack an integrin that interacts with tenascin-C, the main extracellular matrix glycoprotein of the CNS, which is upregulated after injury. The alpha9beta1 integrin heterodimer is a receptor for the nonalternatively spliced region of tenascin-C,(More)
Anti-Nogo-A antibody and chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) enzyme are two promising treatments that promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). Treatment with them has encouraged axon regeneration, sprouting and functional recovery in a variety of spinal cord and central nervous system injury models. The two compounds work, in part, through(More)
Growing and regenerating axons need to interact with the molecules in the extracellular matrix as they traverse through their environment. An important group of receptors that serve this function is the integrin superfamily of cell surface receptors, which are evolutionarily conserved αβ heterodimeric transmembrane proteins. The function of integrins is(More)
PNS axons have a high intrinsic regenerative ability, whereas most CNS axons show little regenerative response. We show that activation of Neu3 sialidase, also known as Neuraminidase-3, causing conversion of GD1a and GT1b to GM1 ganglioside, is an essential step in regeneration occurring in PNS (sensory) but not CNS (retinal) axons in adult rat. In PNS(More)
Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) that results in long-tract axonal damage typically leads to permanent functional deficits in areas innervated at, and below, the level of the lesion. The initial ischemia, inflammation, and neurodegeneration are followed by a progressive generation of scar tissue, dieback of transected axons, and demyelination,(More)
The regeneration of sciatic-dorsal column (DC) axons following DC crush injury and treatment with olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) and/or sciatic axotomy ("conditioning lesion") was evaluated. Sciatic-DC axons were examined with a transganglionic tracer, cholera toxin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase, and evaluated at chronic time points, 2-26 weeks(More)