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An early event that occurs in response to alcohol consumption is mitochondrial dysfunction, which is evident in changes to the mitochondrial proteome, respiration defects, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) has emerged as a potential therapeutic for treating alcoholic liver disease through mechanisms that appear to involve(More)
More than 100 million people in the United States live in areas that exceed current ozone air quality standards. In addition to its known pulmonary effects, environmental ozone exposures have been associated with increased hospital admissions related to cardiovascular events, but to date, no studies have elucidated the potential molecular mechanisms that(More)
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and alcohol (EtOH) consumption often occur together, yet their combined effects on cardiovascular disease development are currently unclear. A shared feature between ETS and EtOH exposure is that both increase oxidative stress and dysfunction within mitochondria. The hypothesis of this study was that simultaneous(More)
Dysfunctional bioenergetics has emerged as a key feature in many chronic pathologies such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This has led to the mitochondrial paradigm in which it has been proposed that mtDNA sequence variation contributes to disease susceptibility. In the present study we show a novel animal model of mtDNA polymorphisms, the MNX(More)
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a B-cell differentiating and T-cell activating cytokine that is expressed in T cells, neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and mast cells. Because IL-6 is also synthesized and released by anterior pituitary cells and IL-6 stimulates pituitary hormone release, this cytokine may serve a paracrine or autocrine role within the pituitary.(More)
Mitochondria are particularly susceptible to increased formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the cell that can occur in response to pathological and xenobiotic stimuli. Proteomics can give insights into both mechanism of pathology and adaptation to stress. Herein we report the use of proteomics to evaluate alterations in the levels of(More)
BACKGROUND Oxidative stress associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors contributes to disease development. However, less is known whether specific subcellular components play a role in disease susceptibility. In this regard, it has been previously reported that vascular mitochondrial damage and dysfunction are associated with atherosclerosis.(More)
Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. While many studies have focused upon the effects of adult second-hand smoke exposure on cardiovascular disease development, disease development occurs over decades and is likely influenced by childhood exposure. The impacts of in utero versus neonatal second-hand smoke(More)
Thymosin fraction-5 (TF5), an array of small molecular weight peptides present in crude extracts of the adult bovine thymus, contains numerous constituents with demonstrable biological activity. Because TF5 generally enhances immune reactivity in a variety of settings, and additionally restricts proliferation of certain neoplasms, we examined the effects of(More)
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