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We have previously reported that the expression of the wheat Cab-1 gene is subject to phytochrome regulation and a 1.8-kb 5' upstream sequence of this gene is sufficient for the regulated expression. To delineate sequences for the phytochrome response we analyzed a series of 5' deletion mutants as well as chimeric gene constructs comprising different(More)
During infections the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus procures the essential nutrient iron from its host using iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) proteins, which scavenge heme bound iron from host hemoproteins. Four Isd proteins are displayed in the cell wall, where they function as receptors for host proteins and heme. Each of the receptors contains(More)
The pathogen Staphylococcus aureus uses iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) proteins to scavenge the essential nutrient iron from host hemoproteins. The IsdH protein (also known as HarA) is a receptor for hemoglobin (Hb), haptoglobin (Hp), and the Hb-Hp complex. It contains three NEAT (NEAr Transporter) domains: IsdH(N1), IsdH(N2), and IsdH(N3). Here(More)
The activated 20 S proteasome, which has been found only in mammalian cells, is composed of two heptamer rings of an activator protein on each end of the 20 S proteasome and is inducible by interferon-gamma. A 20 S proteasome has been recently identified in a protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma brucei, but there has been no experimental evidence yet for the(More)
We have investigated the effects of protein synthesis inhibitors on light-induced expression of two plant nuclear genes, Cab and rbcS, in wheat, pea and transgenic tobacco. Light activation of these two genes is very sensitive to cycloheximide, an inhibitor of cytoplasmic protein synthesis but not to chloramphenicol, an inhibitor of organellar protein(More)
Extrachromosomal DNA elements have been identified in wild-type populations of the parasitic protozoan Leishmania. Elements from L. major and L. tropica were detected using orthogonal-field-alternation-gel electrophoresis. They are nonhomologous, supercoiled circular DNA molecules derived from different chromosomes in the Leishmania genome. Electron(More)
Proteasomes are multisubunit proteases that exist universally among eukaryotes. They have multiple proteolytic activities, and are believed to have important roles in regulating cell cycle, selective intracellular proteolysis, and antigen presentation. To determine the possible role that proteasomes may play in controlling the life cycle of African(More)
Sequences from the 5' end of type 1 human immunodeficiency virus RNA dimerize spontaneously in vitro in a reaction thought to mimic the initial step of genomic dimerization in vivo. Dimer initiation has been proposed to occur through a "kissing-loop" interaction involving a specific RNA stem-loop element designated SL1: the RNA strands first interact by(More)
Electron microscopic analysis of bis-psoralen crosslinked adenovirus type 5 virion DNA revealed supercoiled domains in an otherwise linear DNA. The existence of supercoiled arrangement in all the virion DNA was demonstrated by the sensitivity of Ad5 DNA in pentonless virus particles to the supercoiling-dependent endonucleolytic activity of Bal31 and S1(More)
Three independently derived antifolate-resistant Leishmania major cell lines overproduce the bifunctional protein thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase (TS-DHFR) by amplification of a region of DNA (R-region DNA) that contains the gene for TS-DHFR. On orthogonal-field-alteration gel electrophoresis (OFAGE), the extrachromosomal R-region DNAs are(More)