Melissa L. Nguyen

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The bipartite anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) consisting of protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF) is a major virulence factor contributing to death from systemic Bacillus anthracis infection. The current vaccine elicits antibodies directed primarily to PA; however, in experimental settings serologic responses to LF can neutralize LeTx and contribute to(More)
High titers of Ag-specific human IgG were consistently achieved in SCID mice reconstituted with human splenocytes that had been primed with Ag in vitro and then boosted with Ag after engraftment into SCID mice. Specific human IgG titers in the hu-SPL-SCID mice reached approximately 1:4 x 10(5) when the mice were immunized with a neo-antigen, whereas titers(More)
Anthrax lethal and edema toxins (LeTx and EdTx, respectively) form by binding of lethal factor (LF) or edema factor (EF) to the pore-forming moiety protective antigen (PA). Immunity to LF and EF protects animals from anthrax spore challenge and neutralizes anthrax toxins. The goal of the present study is to identify linear B-cell epitopes of EF and to(More)
In developing therapeutic reagents for the control of HIV infection, it is necessary to screen candidate products in vitro for their ability to reduce or neutralize viral infection. Although the current literature describes numerous neutralization assays, no universally accepted standards have been adopted. In this article, we briefly review the available(More)
A major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis is the anthrax Lethal Toxin (LeTx), a bipartite toxin composed of Protective Antigen and Lethal Factor. Systemic administration of LeTx to laboratory animals leads to death associated with vascular leakage and pulmonary edema. In this study, we investigated whether systemic exposure of mice to LeTx would induce(More)
Anthrax Lethal Toxin consists of Protective Antigen (PA) and Lethal Factor (LF), and current vaccination strategies focus on eliciting antibodies to PA. In human vaccination, the response to PA can vary greatly, and the response is often directed toward non-neutralizing epitopes. Variable vaccine responses have been shown to be due in part to genetic(More)
A substantial fraction of individuals vaccinated against anthrax have low to immeasurable levels of serum Lethal Toxin (LeTx)-neutralizing activity. The only known correlate of protection against Bacillus anthracis in the currently licensed vaccine is magnitude of the IgG response to Protective Antigen (PA); however, some individuals producing high serum(More)
Murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were raised against human, polyclonal, anti-gp120 antibodies (Ab1) and were selected for binding to broadly neutralizing anti-gp120 antibodies in sera positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). One anti-idiotype mAb (Ab2), 3C9, was found to be specific for human anti-gp120 antibodies directed against an epitope(More)
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