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The function of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-preferring glutamate receptor can be regulated by extracellular pH, a process that may be important during ischemia in the brain or during seizures. Protons inhibit NMDA receptor function by 50 percent at pH 7.3 through interactions with the NR1 subunit, and both polyamines and NR1 exon 5 potentiate receptor(More)
By exchanging portions of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR3 and the kainate receptor subunit GluR6, we have identified two discontinuous segments of approximately 150 amino acid residues each that control the agonist pharmacology of these glutamate receptors. The first segment (S1) is adjacent and N-terminal to the putative transmembrane domain 1 (TM1),(More)
NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors and non-NMDA receptors represent the two major classes of ion channel-linked glutamate receptors. Unlike the NMDA receptor channels, non-NMDA receptor channels have usually been thought to conduct monovalent cations only. Non-NMDA receptor ion channels that can be gated by kainic acid (KA) and(More)
The AMPA glutamate receptor subunit GluR2, which plays a critical role in regulation of AMPA channel function, shows altered levels of expression in vivo after several chronic perturbations. To evaluate the possibility that transcriptional mechanisms are involved, we studied a 1254-nucleotide fragment of the 5'-promoter region of the mouse GluR2 gene in(More)
Three closely related genes, GluR1, GluR2, and GluR3, encode receptor subunits for the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. The proteins encoded by the individual genes form homomeric ion channels in Xenopus oocytes that are sensitive to glutamatergic agonists such as kainate and quisqualate but not to N-methyl-D-aspartate, indicating that binding sites(More)
The causative factor(s) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are presently unknown. However, it has been shown that the number as well as the fraction of high- to low-affinity nicotine binding sites is altered in patients suffering from this disease. This finding, along with the identification of seven genes which code for nicotinic receptors expressed in the(More)
A diverse subset of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) detects pathogen-associated nucleic acids to initiate crucial innate immune responses in host organisms. Reflecting their importance for host defense, pathogens encode various countermeasures to evade or inhibit these immune effectors. PRRs directly engaged by pathogen inhibitors often evolve under(More)
ACKNOWLEDGMENT This monograph is based on the papers and discussion from a technical review on " Molecular Approaches to Drug Abuse Research " held on August 24-25, 1989, in Bethesda, MD. The review meeting was sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The National Institute on Drug Abuse has obtained permission from the copyright holders to(More)