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RATIONALE There are no risk stratification tools for morbidity and mortality in bronchiectasis. Identifying patients at risk of exacerbations, hospital admissions, and mortality is vital for future research. OBJECTIVES This study describes the derivation and validation of the Bronchiectasis Severity Index (BSI). METHODS Derivation of the BSI used data(More)
During 1977 and 1978 an unusual epidemic of measles occurred in Shetland, affecting 1032 (5%) of the population. All age groups were represented, and 309 cases occurred in people over 15. Geographical distribution of notified cases ranged from 1% to over one-third of the population aged under 65. All the recognised complications occurred, with a significant(More)
BACKGROUND Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung condition characterised by the accumulation of lipoproteinaceous surfactant material within alveolar airspaces resulting in clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe respiratory failure. Three disease subtypes are recognised: autoimmune, secondary and congenital. METHODS We(More)
A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging system is described, and preliminary results from its clinical use are presented. The properties and detection of the magnetisation due to hydrogen protons are outlined, and a rotating frame is introduced to describe the motion of the magnetisation. Radiofrequency (RF) pulses are used to rotate the magnetisation,(More)
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scans of the liver were obtained in 12 normal volunteers and 32 patients using a whole-body machine developed by Thorn-EMI Ltd., and the results were compared with x-ray computed tomography (CT). Two types of NMR scan, saturation-recovery and inversion-recovery, were performed in order to obtain values for the spin-lattice(More)
RATIONALE Eradication and suppression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a key priority in national guidelines for bronchiectasis and is a major focus of drug development and clinical trials. An accurate estimation of the clinical impact of P. aeruginosa in bronchiectasis is therefore essential. METHODS Data derived from 21 observational cohort studies(More)
RATIONALE Testing for underlying etiology is a key part of bronchiectasis management, but it is unclear whether the same extent of testing is required across the spectrum of disease severity. OBJECTIVES The aim of the present study was to identify the etiology of bronchiectasis across European cohorts and according to different levels of disease severity.(More)
Bronchiectasis is a chronic debilitating condition with considerable phenotypic diversity. A vicious cycle of infection and inflammation exists in damaged airways with patients suffering from persistent cough, purulent sputum production, recurrent chest infections and general malaise. The associated burden of disease in terms of increased morbidity, reduced(More)
We create entangled states of the spin and motion of a single 40Ca+ ion in a linear ion trap. We theoretically study and experimentally observe the behavior outside the Lamb-Dicke regime, where the trajectory in phase space is modified and the motional coherent states become squeezed. We directly observe the modification of the return time of the(More)
BACKGROUND The hallmark of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis is recurrent bronchial infection, yet there are significant gaps in our understanding of pathogen persistence, resistance and exacerbation frequencies. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a key pathogen thought to be a marker of disease severity and progression, yet little is known if the infection risk is(More)