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Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers is primarily particulate in contrast to its greater solubility in brain. Immunohistochemistry shows nNOS localized to the sarcolemma, with enrichment at force transmitting sites, the myotendinous junctions, and costameres. Because this distribution is similar to dystrophin, we(More)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked, degenerative muscle disease that is exacerbated by secondary inflammation. Here, we characterized the immunological milieu of dystrophic muscle in mdx mice, a model of DMD, to identify potential therapeutic targets. We identified a specific subpopulation of cells expressing the Vbeta8.1/8.2 TCR that is(More)
Dystrophin-deficient muscles experience large reductions in expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which suggests that NO deficiency may influence the dystrophic pathology. Because NO can function as an antiinflammatory and cytoprotective molecule, we propose that the loss of NOS from dystrophic muscle exacerbates muscle inflammation and fiber damage by(More)
Muscle wasting is a prominent feature of several systemic diseases, neurological damage and muscle disuse. The contribution of calpain proteases to muscle wasting in any instance of muscle injury or disease has remained unknown because of the inability to specifically perturb calpain activity in vivo. We have generated a transgenic mouse with(More)
The current view that death of dystrophin-deficient muscle fibers is a necrotic process relies primarily upon the histological appearance of the tissue after the degenerative process is well advanced. Here, we tested this view by examining the possibility that apoptosis is a component of dystrophin-deficient muscle cell death. Three assays for apoptosis(More)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and mdx mouse dystrophy result from mutations in the dystrophin gene. Although these mutations are primarily responsible for the defects that underlie the pathology of dystrophinopathies, other factors may contribute importantly to the pathology. In the present investigation, we tested whether T cells present in mdx muscles(More)
Mutations in DMD disrupt the reading frame, prevent dystrophin translation, and cause Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here we describe a CRISPR/Cas9 platform applicable to 60% of DMD patient mutations. We applied the platform to DMD-derived hiPSCs where successful deletion and non-homologous end joining of up to 725 kb reframed the DMD gene. This is the(More)
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H) and sarcotubular myopathy are hereditary skeletal muscle disorders caused by mutations in TRIM32. We previously identified TRIM32 as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that binds to myosin and ubiquitinates actin. To date four TRIM32 mutations have been linked to LGMD2H, all of which occur in the C-terminal NHL domains.(More)
Calcium influx into SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells after ionophore treatment or transient permeabilization in calcium-containing medium increased ALZ-50 immunoreactivity markedly. This increase was prevented by inhibitors active against calpain or against protein kinase C (PKC), suggesting that both of these enzymes were required to mediate the effect of(More)
Myonuclear apoptosis is an early event in the pathology of dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy in the mdx mouse. However, events that initiate apoptosis in muscular dystrophy are unknown, and whether elimination of apoptosis can ameliorate subsequent muscle wasting remains a major question. We have tested the hypothesis that cytotoxic T-lymphocytes(More)