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Gliding motility in the developmental bacterium Myxococcus xanthus involves two genetically distinct motility systems, designated adventurous (A) and social (S). Directed motility responses, which facilitate both vegetative swarming and developmental aggregation, additionally require the 'frizzy' (Frz) signal transduction pathway. In this study, we have(More)
Thirty years after the discovery of HIV-1, the early transmission, dissemination, and establishment of the virus in human populations remain unclear. Using statistical approaches applied to HIV-1 sequence data from central Africa, we show that from the 1920s Kinshasa (in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo) was the focus of early transmission and(More)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in humans is inter-linked with AMR in other populations, especially farm animals, and in the wider environment. The relatively few bacterial species that cause disease in humans, and are the targets of antibiotic treatment, constitute a tiny subset of the overall diversity of bacteria that includes the gut microbiota and vast(More)
We present a formalism for unifying the inference of population size from genetic sequences and mathematical models of infectious disease in populations. Virus phylogenies have been used in many recent studies to infer properties of epidemics. These approaches rely on coalescent models that may not be appropriate for infectious diseases. We account for(More)
Myxococcus xanthus is a Gram-negative bacterium with a complex life cycle that includes vegetative swarming on rich medium and, upon starvation, aggregation to form fruiting bodies containing spores. Both of these behaviours require multiple Ser/Thr protein kinases. In this paper, we report the first Ser/Thr protein phosphatase gene, pph1, from M. xanthus.(More)
Myxococcus xanthus is a Gram-negative bacterium that exhibits a complex life cycle. During vegetative growth, cells move as large swarms. However, when starved, cells aggregate into fruiting bodies and sporulate. Both vegetative swarming and developmental aggregation require gliding motility, which involves the slow movement of cells on a solid surface in(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 infects water and land fowl and can infect and cause mortality in mammals, including humans. However, HPAI H5N1 strains are not equally virulent in mammals, and some strains have been shown to cause only mild symptoms in experimental infections. Since most experimental studies of the basis of virulence in(More)
The circulation of vector-borne zoonotic viruses is largely determined by the overlap in the geographical distributions of virus-competent vectors and reservoir hosts. What is less clear are the factors influencing the distribution of virus-specific lineages. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the most important etiologic agent of epidemic encephalitis(More)
Using interaction trap technology, we identified a putative extracytoplasmic-function (ECF) sigma factor (RpoE1) in Myxococcus xanthus, a bacterium which has a complex life cycle that includes fruiting body formation. The first domain of the response regulator protein FrzZ, a component of the Frz signal transduction system, was used as bait. Although the(More)
Phylogenies of highly genetically variable viruses such as HIV-1 are potentially informative of epidemiological dynamics. Several studies have demonstrated the presence of clusters of highly related HIV-1 sequences, particularly among recently HIV-infected individuals, which have been used to argue for a high transmission rate during acute infection. Using(More)