Melissa J Spencer

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Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers is primarily particulate in contrast to its greater solubility in brain. Immunohistochemistry shows nNOS localized to the sarcolemma, with enrichment at force transmitting sites, the myotendinous junctions, and costameres. Because this distribution is similar to dystrophin, we(More)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked, degenerative muscle disease that is exacerbated by secondary inflammation. Here, we characterized the immunological milieu of dystrophic muscle in mdx mice, a model of DMD, to identify potential therapeutic targets. We identified a specific subpopulation of cells expressing the Vbeta8.1/8.2 TCR that is(More)
Dystrophin-deficient muscles experience large reductions in expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which suggests that NO deficiency may influence the dystrophic pathology. Because NO can function as an antiinflammatory and cytoprotective molecule, we propose that the loss of NOS from dystrophic muscle exacerbates muscle inflammation and fiber damage by(More)
The current view that death of dystrophin-deficient muscle fibers is a necrotic process relies primarily upon the histological appearance of the tissue after the degenerative process is well advanced. Here, we tested this view by examining the possibility that apoptosis is a component of dystrophin-deficient muscle cell death. Three assays for apoptosis(More)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and mdx mouse dystrophy result from mutations in the dystrophin gene. Although these mutations are primarily responsible for the defects that underlie the pathology of dystrophinopathies, other factors may contribute importantly to the pathology. In the present investigation, we tested whether T cells present in mdx muscles(More)
Mutations in DMD disrupt the reading frame, prevent dystrophin translation, and cause Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here we describe a CRISPR/Cas9 platform applicable to 60% of DMD patient mutations. We applied the platform to DMD-derived hiPSCs where successful deletion and non-homologous end joining of up to 725 kb reframed the DMD gene. This is the(More)
The hypothesis that changes in muscle activation and loading regulate the expression and activity of neuronal nitric oxide (NO) synthase (nNOS) was tested using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Removal of weight bearing from rat hindlimb muscles for 10 days resulted in a significant decrease in nNOS protein and mRNA concentration in soleus muscles, which(More)
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H) and sarcotubular myopathy are hereditary skeletal muscle disorders caused by mutations in TRIM32. We previously identified TRIM32 as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that binds to myosin and ubiquitinates actin. To date four TRIM32 mutations have been linked to LGMD2H, all of which occur in the C-terminal NHL domains.(More)
Trim32 belongs to the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family, which is characterized by a common domain structure composed of a RING-finger, a B-box, and a coiled-coil motif. In addition to these motifs, Trim32 possesses six C-terminal NHL-domains. A point mutation in one NHL domain (D487N) has been linked to two forms of muscular dystrophy called limb(More)
Dysbindin was identified as a dystrobrevin-binding protein potentially involved in the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy. Subsequently, genetic studies have implicated variants of the human dysbindin-encoding gene, DTNBP1, in the pathogeneses of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome and schizophrenia. The protein is a stable component of a multisubunit complex termed(More)