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Exposure to environmental contaminants is complicated by factors related to socioeconomic status, diet, and other culturally conditioned risk behaviors. Determination of a trace element profile in toenails can be used as a tool in biomonitoring the exposure history or assessing the deficiency of a particular element in a study population, which can lead to(More)
Arsenic in drinking water has been linked with the risk of urinary bladder cancer, but the dose–response relationships for arsenic exposures below 100 μg/L remain equivocal. We conducted a population-based case–control study in southeastern Michigan, USA, where approximately 230,000 people were exposed to arsenic concentrations between 10 and 100 μg/L. This(More)
Human nail clippings have been used in recent epidemiological studies as a routine bioindicator of arsenic and selenium exposure. To ensure sound application of this biomarker, however, it is important to consider properties and scientific knowledge pertaining to validation of this particular tool. In this review, the use of human nails to measure exposure(More)
Toenails were used recently in epidemiological and environmental health studies as a means of assessing exposure to arsenic from drinking water. While positive correlations between toenail and drinking-water arsenic concentrations were reported in the literature, a significant percentage of the variation in toenail arsenic concentration remains unexplained(More)
The large disparity between arsenic concentrations in drinking water and urine remains unexplained. This study aims to evaluate predictors of urinary arsenic in a population exposed to low concentrations (≤50 μg/l) of arsenic in drinking water. Urine and drinking water samples were collected from a subsample (n=343) of a population enrolled in a bladder(More)
Objectives were to examine the effects of feeding to alter body condition at calving on subsequent full lactation production performance and feed intake, on BW and periparturient blood traits, and on complete energy and N balances and ration digestibility during wk 6, 10, and 14 postpartum. Thirty pluriparous Holstein cows were assigned randomly to two(More)
OBJECTIVES A space-time information system (STIS) based method is introduced for calculating individual-level estimates of inorganic arsenic exposure over the adult life-course. STIS enables visualization and analysis of space-time data, overcoming some of the constraints inherent to spatial-only Geographic Information System software. The power of this new(More)
Accurate estimates of inorganic arsenic intake are critical for evaluating potential health risks. Intake estimates have not been critically examined in regions of the United States where people are at risk from arsenic concentrations in drinking water exceeding the maximum contaminant limit of 10 microg/l. In southeastern Michigan, approximately 8% of the(More)
BACKGROUND: Recent years have seen an expansion in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in environmental health research. In this field GIS can be used to detect disease clustering, to analyze access to hospital emergency care, to predict environmental outbreaks, and to estimate exposure to toxic compounds. Despite these advances the inability of(More)
A thorough assessment of human exposure to environmental agents should incorporate mobility patterns and temporal changes in human behaviors and concentrations of contaminants; yet the temporal dimension is often under-emphasized in exposure assessment endeavors, due in part to insufficient tools for visualizing and examining temporal datasets.(More)