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The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle for drug delivery to the brain. To seek for in vitro BBB models that are more accessible than animals for investigating drug transport across the BBB, we compared four in vitro cultured cell models: endothelial monoculture (bEnd3 cell line), coculture of bEnd3 and primary rat astrocytes (coculture),(More)
Apoptotic or necrotic cell death in the hippocampus is a major factor underlying the cognitive impairments following traumatic brain injury. In this study, we examined if traumatic mechanical injury would produce regional activation of calpain and caspase-3 in the in vitro hippocampus and studied how the mechanically induced activation of NR2A and NR2B(More)
Seed ingestion by frugivorous vertebrates commonly benefits plants by moving seeds to locations with fewer predators and pathogens than under the parent. For plants with high local population densities, however, movement from the parent plant is unlikely to result in 'escape' from predators and pathogens. Changes to seed condition caused by gut passage may(More)
A fragment of plasmid NAH7 from Pseudomonas putida PpG7 has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli HB101. Growth of the recombinant Escherichia coli in nutrient medium results in the formation of indigo. The production of this dye is increased in the presence of tryptophan or indole. Several bacteria that oxidize aromatic hydrocarbons to(More)
There is a great need for the development of vehicles capable of delivering therapeutic cargoes across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and into brain cells. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), such as TAT, present one such solution, and have been used successfully in vivo to deliver neuroprotective cargoes to the brain in models of stroke and seizure. However,(More)
Adrenal gland homogenates from four different strains of mice were incubated with (4-14 C)-pregnenolone and a NADPH generating system. The most important androgen synthesized was dehydroepiandrosterone; testosterone and progesterone were synthesized to a lesser extent and the production of androstenedione was very low. The highest synthetic activities were(More)
Astrocyte activation contributes to the brain's response to disease and injury. Activated astrocytes generate harmful radicals that exacerbate brain damage including nitric oxide, peroxides and superoxides. Furthermore, reactive astrocytes hinder regeneration of damaged neural circuits by secreting neuro-developmental inhibitors and glycosaminoglycans(More)
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