Melissa E. Crowder

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To define alterations of neuronal connectivity that occur during motor neuron degeneration, we characterized the function and structure of spinal circuitry in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) model mice. SMA motor neurons show reduced proprioceptive reflexes that correlate with decreased number and function of synapses on motor neuron somata and proximal(More)
The inherited motor neuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by deficient expression of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein and results in severe muscle weakness. In SMA mice, synaptic dysfunction of both neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and central sensorimotor synapses precedes motor neuron cell death. To address whether this synaptic(More)
A transnasal, transsphenoidal surgical approach was used to perform hypothalamic pituitary disconnections (HPD) in ovariectomized (OVX) ewes to examine the role of the hypothalamus in regulating the synthesis of anterior pituitary hormones. Ewes were killed at 1-3 days (n = 6), 1 week (n = 5), or 1 month (n = 5) after HPD. Pituitary glands were removed, and(More)
Acute changes of bovine pituitary luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptors in response to steroid challenges have not been documented. To investigate these changes 96 ovariectomized (OVX) cows were randomly allotted to one of the following treatments: 1) 1 mg estriol (E3); 2) 1 mg 17 beta-estradiol (E2); or 3) 25 mg progesterone (P) twice(More)
Studies were undertaken to determine if the number of hypophyseal receptors for GnRH changes at the time of the preovulatory surge of LH in ewes. Concentrations of LH, FSH, progesterone, and estradiol in serum and concentrations of LH and FSH in pituitary were measured. The content of GnRH in the hypothalamus was also determined. Estrus was synchronized in(More)
Two experiments were performed to examine the effect of estradiol on secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and on the number of receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) after down regulation of GnRH receptors in ovariectomized ewes. In the first experiment, ovariectomized ewes were administered one of four treatments: Group 1) infusion of GnRH(More)
Ovariectomized (OVX), hypothalamo/pituitary-disconnected (HPD) ewes were used to ascertain the short-term effects of estradiol on the number of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors in the pituitary gland. The time course of the study was such that measurements were made during the period of short-term negative feedback and positive feedback.(More)
Studies were undertaken to determine if changes in the amplitude of luteinizing hormone (LH) pulses that occur in response to changes in the frequency of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulses are due to an alteration in the number of GnRH receptors. Ewes were ovariectomized (OVX) and the hypothalamus was disconnected from the pituitary (HPD). Ewes(More)