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Metabolic imaging of the relative amounts of reduced NADH and FAD and the microenvironment of these metabolic electron carriers can be used to noninvasively monitor changes in metabolism, which is one of the hallmarks of carcinogenesis. This study combines cellular redox ratio, NADH and FAD lifetime, and subcellular morphology imaging in three dimensions to(More)
Molecular imaging is a powerful tool for investigating disease processes and potential therapies in both in vivo and in vitro systems. However, high resolution molecular imaging has been limited to relatively shallow penetration depths that can be accessed with microscopy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical analogue to ultrasound with(More)
We have combined hyperspectral imaging with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) to noninvasively image changes in hemoglobin saturation, blood flow, microvessel morphology, and sheer rate on the vessel wall with tumor growth. Changes in these hemodynamic variables were measured over 24 h in dorsal skin fold window chamber tumors. There was(More)
Primary tumor organoids grown in three-dimensional culture provide an excellent platform for studying tumor progression, invasion, and drug response. However, organoid generation protocols require fresh tumor tissue, which limits organoid research and clinical use. This study investigates cellular morphology, viability, and drug response of organoids(More)
This study characterizes the morphologic features and the endogenous fluorescence in the stratified squamous epithelia of the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-treated hamster cheek pouch model of carcinogenesis using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM). MPLSM allows high-resolution, three-dimensional image data to be collected deeper within thick(More)
Abnormal cellular metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, yet there is an absence of quantitative methods to dynamically image this powerful cellular function. Optical metabolic imaging (OMI) is a noninvasive, high-resolution, quantitative tool for monitoring cellular metabolism. OMI probes the fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of the autofluorescent(More)
Multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a noninvasive, cellular resolution, 3-D functional imaging technique. We investigate the potential for in vivo precancer diagnosis with metabolic imaging via multiphoton FLIM of the endogenous metabolic cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene(More)
Photothermal optical coherence tomography (PT-OCT) is a potentially powerful tool for molecular imaging. Here, we characterize PT-OCT imaging of gold nanorod (GNR) contrast agents in phantoms, and we apply these techniques for in vivo GNR imaging. The PT-OCT signal was compared to the bio-heat equation in phantoms, and in vivo PT-OCT images were acquired(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The first objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of fluorescence spectroscopy for diagnosing pre-cancers in stratified squamous epithelial tissues in vivo using two different probe geometries with (1) overlapping versus (2) non-overlapping illumination and collection areas on the tissue surface. Probe (1) and probe(More)