Melissa C Lutterodt

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BACKGROUND Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with negative reproductive consequences for male fetuses in adult life such as reduced testicular volume and sperm concentration. The present study evaluates the number of germ and somatic cells present in human embryonic first-trimester gonads in relation to maternal smoking. METHODS The study(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal development of autonomic nerve fibers and primordial germ cells (PGCs) along their migratory route from the dorsal mesentery to the gonadal ridges in human embryos using immunohistochemical markers and electron microscopy. Autonomic nerve fibers in the dorsal mesentery, the pre-aortic and(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) blood concentrations in mother and fetus during pregnancy. Serum concentrations of AMH, gonadotrophins, oestradiol and progesterone were measured in pregnant women in the first trimester and AMH concentrations in second-trimester fetuses, and these were compared in(More)
BACKGROUND Expression of cancer/testis-associated proteins (CTAs) has traditionally been considered to be restricted to germ cells in normal tissues and to different types of malignancies. We have evaluated the potential role of CTAs in early human development. METHODS Using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR, we investigated the expression of CTAs in(More)
In rodents, the Otx2 gene is expressed in the diencephalon, mesencephalon, and cerebellum and is crucial for the development of these brain regions. Together with Otx1, Otx2 is known to cooperate with other genes to develop the caudal forebrain and, further, Otx1 is also involved in differentiation of young neurons of the deeper cortical layers. We have(More)
We studied the spatial and temporal expression of the homeobox genes PAX6, OTX2, and OTX1 using a developmental series of human fetal eyes aged from 6 to 10 weeks post-conception. Previous animal studies have shown that PAX6 may regulate progenitor cell proliferation, timing of differentiation and neural retina cell fate determination. OTX2 may play a role(More)
BACKGROUND The number of germ cells in human embryonic and fetal ovaries in relation to age is currently based on volumetric estimations from one study including a total of 12 ovaries. Six recent publications present stereological estimations of the number of germ cells in ovaries and testes for the first two trimesters. METHODS Germ cell numbers from 103(More)
The development of the human neocortex is a complex and highly regulated process involving a time-related expression of many transcription factors including the homeobox genes Pax6 and Meis2. During early development, Pax6 is expressed in nuclei of radial glia cells in the neocortical proliferative zones and controls the differentiation and neurogenetic(More)
BACKGROUND Reliable age determination of first-trimester human embryos and fetuses is an important parameter for clinical use and basic science. Age determination by ultrasound or morphometric parameters of embryos 4-6 weeks post conception (p.c.) have been questioned, and more accurate methods are required. Data on whether and how maternal smoking and(More)
BACKGROUND Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking or compounds of cigarette smoke is associated with serious reproductive hazards such as apoptotic death of oogonia in murine offspring and decreased fecundability in human offspring. The present study addresses potential effects of in utero exposure to cigarette smoking. METHODS Twenty-nine human(More)