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The majority of cancers arise from malignant epithelial cells. We report the design of synthetic oligonucleotides (aptamers) that are only internalized by epithelial cancer cells and can be precisely activated by light to kill such cells. Specifically, phototoxic DNA aptamers were selected to bind to unique short O-glycan-peptide signatures on the surface(More)
In the Chx10-null ocular retardation (or(J)) mouse, retinal progenitor cell (RPC) proliferation is impaired, and bipolar neurons, a late born cell type, fail to differentiate. It is unclear whether Chx10 is required to maintain proliferation throughout retinogenesis or whether the bipolar cell defect is an indirect effect of growth arrest. We show that(More)
The functional roles of Tyr771, Thr772, and Asn776 in the fifth transmembrane segment of the Na, K-ATPase alpha subunit were studied using site-directed mutagenesis, expression, and kinetics analysis. Nonconservative replacements Thr772Tyr and Asn776Ala led to reduced Na,K-ATPase turnover. Replacements at these positions (Asn776Ala, Thr772Leu, and(More)
We evaluated whether genetic instability, which is the hallmark of cancer cells, can be investigated at the single chromosomal level. We established in culture and examined a human malignant melanoma cell line and its 11 distinct clones as well as peripheral blood cultures from the original patient by G-banding, C-banding, and silver-staining (AgNOR)(More)
Few treatment options exist for patients with metastatic melanoma, resulting in poor prognosis. One standard treatment, dacarbazine (DTIC), shows low response rates ranging from 15 to 25 percent with an 8-month median survival time. The development of targeted therapeutics with novel mechanisms of action may improve patient outcome. Ribosome-inactivating(More)
A cytogenetic study was done on a human malignant melanoma cell line and its 5 clones. Chromosome banding analysis indicated the presence of 7 "shared" markers (M) and 9 unique markers (m) that were present only in the clones. Chromosomes 1, 5, 9, 12, 17 and 21 were involved in M-markers and chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 16, 17, 18 and 21 were involved(More)
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