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GOALS To assess the relative injury reduction effect and acceptability of face guards on batter's helmets. METHODS A non-randomized prospective cohort study among 238 youth league baseball teams in Central and Southern Indiana during the 1997 season. Coaches, parents, and players were asked to respond to pre-season and post-season questionnaires.(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin D insufficiency (defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations <40 nmol/L) may be associated with subclinical adverse effects on bone mineralization. The current vitamin D status of children and adolescents in Canada has not been described. The purpose of this study was to describe the association between 25(OH)D serum(More)
OBJECTIVE Fire is a leading cause of unintentional injury and, although young children are at particularly increased risk, there are very few evidence-based resources available to teach them fire safety knowledge and behaviors. Using a pre-post randomized design, the current study evaluated the effectiveness of a computer game (The Great Escape) for(More)
Past research confirms that parents extend much effort to teach their young children about safety, but little is known about this process. The present study examined mothers' use of teaching as a strategy to manage young children's risk of home injury and how this impacts children's hazard interactions. Mothers of three-year-olds completed an in-home(More)
OBJECTIVE Pre-post-randomized design evaluated The Blue Dog, a dog safety software program. METHODS 76 children aged 3.5-6 years completed 3 tasks to evaluate dog safety pre- and postintervention: (a) pictures (recognition of safe/risky behavior), (b) dollhouse (recall of safe behavior via simulated dollhouse scenarios), and (c) live dog (actual behavior(More)
OBJECTIVES Young children are at particular risk for dog bite injuries. This study examined parents' supervision of and reactions to their children in the vicinity of an unfamiliar dog. METHODS A pre/post intervention/control group randomized design assessed whether exposure to The Blue Dog, a dog bite prevention and education program, positively impacted(More)
Annually approximately 400,000 American children receive treatment for dog bites. Young children are at greatest risk and are frequently bitten following behavior that provokes familiar dogs. This study investigated the effects of child temperament on children's interaction with dogs. Eighty-eight children aged 3.5-6 years interacted with a live dog. Dog(More)
OBJECTIVE Teaching safety rules is a common way parents attempt to moderate injury risk for elementary-school children, but few studies have examined the nature of this teaching. The present study explored whether mothers' safety rules varied with type of injury (falls, poisoning, burns and cuts), the nature of these teaching strategies about rules, and how(More)
BACKGROUND Enhancing caregivers' awareness of children's injury risks and increasing knowledge about strategies for injury prevention often involve presenting parents with written materials and accompanying images. OBJECTIVES To assess parents' appraisals of different variations of images and identify those features that enhance their attention to safety(More)
OBJECTIVE This study compared boys' with girls' hazard-directed behaviors at home when the mother was present and absent from the room. METHODS Videos were coded for how children reacted to a contrived burn hazard ('Gadget'), maternal verbalizations to children about the hazard, and children's compliance with directives to avoid the hazard. Children's(More)