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Interneurons are an integral part of cortical neuronal circuits. During the past decade, numerous studies have shown that these cells, unlike their pyramidal counterparts that are derived from the neuroepithelium along the lumen of the lateral ventricles, are generated in the ganglionic eminences in the subpallium. They use tangential migratory paths to(More)
Cortical interneurons in rodents are generated in the ventral telencephalon and migrate tangentially into the cortex. This process requires the coordinated action of many intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Here we show that Robo1 and Robo2 receptor proteins are dynamically expressed throughout the period of corticogenesis and colocalize with interneuronal(More)
The elaborate cytoarchitecture of the mammalian neocortex requires the timely production of its constituent pyramidal neurons and interneurons and their disposition in appropriate layers. Numerous chemotropic factors present in the forebrain throughout cortical development play important roles in the orchestration of these events. The Roundabout (Robo)(More)
The spinal cord contains neuronal circuits termed Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) that coordinate rhythmic motor activities. CPG circuits consist of motor neurons and multiple interneuron cell types, many of which are derived from four distinct cardinal classes of ventral interneurons, called V0, V1, V2 and V3. While significant progress has been made on(More)
The interactions of acid–base status, waste nitrogen excretion and metabolism in the gulf toadfish Opsanus beta, a ureogenic teleost, were examined by exposing toadfish to a variety of water treatments. Our measurements show that, like other marine teleosts, toadfish rapidly regulate acid–base status by manipulating blood [HCO3 Ϫ ]. Several treatments(More)
In the neocortex, higher-order areas are essential to integrate sensory-motor information and have expanded in size during evolution. How higher-order areas are specified, however, remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the migration and distribution of early-born neurons, the Cajal-Retzius cells (CRs), controls the size of higher-order areas in the(More)
Tangential migration is a mode of cell movement, which in the developing cerebral cortex, is defined by displacement parallel to the ventricular surface and orthogonal to the radial glial fibers. This mode of long-range migration is a strategy by which distinct neuronal classes generated from spatially and molecularly distinct origins can integrate to form(More)
Cortical interneurons are generated predominantly in the medial ganglionic eminence of the ventral telencephalon and migrate to the cortex during embryonic development. These cells express neuropilin (Nrp1 and Nrp2) receptors which mediate their response to the chemorepulsive class 3 semaphorin (Sema) ligands. We show here that semaphorins Sema3A and Sema3F(More)
A number of studies in recent years have shown that members of the Roundabout (Robo) receptor family, Robo1 and Robo2, play significant roles in the formation of axonal tracks in the developing forebrain and in the migration and morphological differentiation of cortical interneurons. Here, we investigated the expression and function of Robo3 in the(More)
Cortical interneurons are generated in the ganglionic eminences and migrate through the ventral and dorsal telencephalon before finding their final positions within the cortical plate. During early stages of migration, these cells are present in two well-defined streams within the developing cortex. In an attempt to identify candidate genes which may play a(More)
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