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Phosphorylation is thought to be an essential first step in the prompt deactivation of photoexcited rhodopsin. In vitro, the phosphorylation can be catalyzed either by rhodopsin kinase (RK) or by protein kinase C (PKC). To investigate the specific role of RK, we inactivated both alleles of the RK gene in mice. This eliminated the light-dependent(More)
Vertebrate retinal photoreceptors recover from photoexcitation-induced hydrolysis of guanosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cyclic GMP) by resynthesizing cyclic GMP, which reopens cation channels that have been closed by light. Activation of guanylate cyclase by light-induced depletion of cytosolic calcium is a key event in this recovery process. This cyclase has(More)
One of the membrane guanylyl cyclases (GCs), RetGC, is expressed predominantly in photoreceptors. No extracellular ligand has been described for RetGC, but it is sensitive to activation by a soluble 24-kDa protein (p24) and is inhibited by Ca2+. This enzyme is, therefore, thought to play a role in resynthesizing cGMP for photoreceptor recovery or(More)
Heterotrimeric G proteins couple various receptors to intracellular effector molecules. Although the role of the G alpha subunit in effector activation, guanine nucleotide exchange and GTP hydrolysis has been well studied, the cellular functions of the G beta subunits are less well understood. G beta gamma dimers bind G alpha subunits and anchor them to the(More)
Calpain 3 is a member of the calpain family of calcium-dependent intracellular proteases. Thirteen years ago it was discovered that mutations in calpain 3 (CAPN3) result in an autosomal recessive and progressive form of limb girdle muscular dystrophy called limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A. While calpain 3 mRNA is expressed at high levels in muscle(More)
The source and nature of carbon on Mars have been a subject of intense speculation. We report the results of confocal Raman imaging spectroscopy on 11 martian meteorites, spanning about 4.2 billion years of martian history. Ten of the meteorites contain abiotic macromolecular carbon (MMC) phases detected in association with small oxide grains included(More)
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Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA scientific and technical information (STI) program plays a key part in helping NASA maintain this important role. The NASA STI program operates under the auspices of the Agency Chief Information Officer. It collects, organizes, provides for archiving,(More)
Pertussis toxin inactivates certain G-proteins by introducing an ADP-ribose group near the carboxyl-terminus of the alpha-subunit. The major pertussis toxin substrate in Drosophila tissues is Go alpha. We introduced a pertussis toxin gene under control of the hsp70 heat-shock promoter into the Drosophila genome. When heat-shocked, transformed flies produce(More)