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Transient receptor potential (TRP) A1 channels are cation channels found preferentially on nociceptive sensory neurones, including capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1-expressing vagal bronchopulmonary C-fibres, and are activated by electrophilic compounds such as mustard oil and cinnamaldehyde. Oxidative stress, a pathological feature of many respiratory diseases,(More)
Electrophysiological studies of vagal sensory nerves with cell bodies in the nodose ganglion and mechanically sensitive receptive fields in the guinea-pig trachea/bronchus, were performed. Exposure of the mechanically sensitive receptive fields to 4-aminopyridine (100 microM-1 mM) caused pronounced action potential discharge in all fibres studied. Action(More)
Interest in extracellular RNA (exRNA) has intensified as evidence accumulates that these molecules may be useful as indicators of a wide variety of biological conditions. To establish specific exRNA molecules as clinically relevant biomarkers, reproducible recovery from biological samples and reliable measurements of the isolated RNA are paramount. Toward(More)
1. Intracellular and extracellular electrophysiological recording techniques were employed to examine the mechanisms involved in adaptation of guinea-pig airway sensory neurones to suprathreshold mechanical stimulation in vitro. Extracellular recordings performed using an in vitro airway preparation revealed two unambiguously distinct subsets of(More)
The role of endogenous 5-lipoxygenase products in modulating tachykinergic neurotransmission in guinea pig isolated trachea was investigated. Tachykinin-containing afferent nerve fibers were stimulated with either electrical field stimulation or antidromic stimulation of the right vagus nerve. This resulted in contractions of the isolated caudal trachea and(More)
Cough plays a vital role in protecting the lower airways from inhaled irritants, pollutants, and infectious agents. The cough reflex exhibits remarkable plasticity, such that in the context of infectious or inflammatory respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis the cough reflex can become dysregulated,(More)
Restriction of HIV-1 in myeloid-lineage cells is attributed in part to the nucleotidase activity of the SAM-domain and HD-domain containing protein (SAMHD1), which depletes free nucleotides, blocking reverse transcription. In the same cells, the Vpx protein of HIV-2 and most SIVs counteracts SAMHD1. Both Type I and II interferons may stimulate SAMHD1(More)
Pilakka-Kanthikeel et al. recently reported higher levels of the retroviral restriction factor sterile alpha motif and histidine/aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) in astrocytes than in microglia, suggesting that SAMHD1 levels might explain in part the relatively refractory nature of astrocytes to retroviral replication. These findings are(More)
Several techniques have been tailored to the quantification of microRNA expression, including hybridization arrays, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and high-throughput sequencing. Each of these has certain strengths and limitations depending both on the technology itself and the algorithm used to convert raw data into expression estimates. Reliable quantification(More)