Melinda Palmer

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We report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the domesticated apple (Malus × domestica). We show that a relatively recent (>50 million years ago) genome-wide duplication (GWD) has resulted in the transition from nine ancestral chromosomes to 17 chromosomes in the Pyreae. Traces of older GWDs partly support the monophyly of the ancestral paleohexaploidy(More)
Staphylococcal alpha-toxin, streptolysin-O, and Escherichia coli hemolysin are well-studied prototypes of pore-forming bacterial cytotoxins. Each is produced as a water-soluble single-chain polypeptide that inserts into target membranes to form aqueous transmembrane pores. This review will compare properties of the three toxin prototypes, highlighting the(More)
Several species of both pathogenic and non-pathogenic grampositive bacteria within the genera Streptococcus, Clostridium and Bacillus secrete cytolytic proteins that belong to a single, highly homologous family. The most widely known members of this family are streptolysin O, listeriolysin, perfringolysin, and pneumolysin. These toxins specifically require(More)
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