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While there is a developing understanding of the influence of sleep on cardiovascular autonomic activity in humans, there remain unresolved issues. In particular, the effect of time within the sleep period, independent of sleep stage, has not been investigated. Further, the influence of sleep on central sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is uncertain(More)
BACKGROUND Atrial fibrillation (AF) represents an increasing public health challenge with profound social and economic implications. METHODS A comprehensive synthesis and review of the AF literature was performed. Overall, key findings from 182 studies were used to describe the indicative scope and impact of AF from an individual to population(More)
Existing literature on reward motivation pays scant attention to the fact that reward potential of the environment varies dramatically with the light/dark cycle. Evolution, by contrast, treats this fact very seriously: In all species, the circadian system is adapted to optimize the daily rhythm of environmental engagement. We used 3 standard protocols to(More)
OBJECTIVES Despite a relatively large body of literature describing the characteristics of sleep spindles and K-complexes in young adults, relatively little research has been conducted in older individuals. The general consensus from the few studies that have addressed this issue is that there is a progressive decrease in the number of spindles and(More)
Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity vary diurnally, with a reduction in HR and BP, and a shift to vagal dominance during the dark phase. However, the cause of these changes, particularly the relative influence of sleep and circadian mechanisms, remains uncertain. The present study assessed the effect of sleep(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES This paper aims to determine whether experimental arousals from sleep delay the sleep related fall in cardiovascular activity in healthy adults. DESIGN We report the results of 2 studies. The first experiment manipulated arousals from sleep in young adults. The second compared the effect of frequent arousals on young and middle-aged(More)
Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) are influenced by the sleep-wake cycle, with relatively abrupt falls occurring in association with sleep onset (SO). However, the pattern and rate of fall in BP and HR during SO and the processes that contribute to the fall in these variables have not been fully identified. Continuous BP and HR recordings were(More)
BACKGROUND Beyond examining their overall cost-effectiveness and mechanisms of effect, it is important to understand patient preferences for the delivery of different modes of chronic heart failure management programs (CHF-MPs). We elicited patient preferences around the characteristics and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a clinic or home-based CHF-MP. (More)
OBJECTIVES This study assessed the burden and determinants of cardiovascular and metabolic risk in a community sample of high risk Indigenous Australians. BACKGROUND Indigenous Australians are over-represented in the most disadvantaged strata of Australian society. The role of psychosocial and socioeconomic factors in patterning cardiometabolic disease in(More)