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The mechanisms underlying distension-evoked peristalsis in the colon are incompletely understood. It is well known that, following colonic distension, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is released from enterochromaffin (EC) cells in the intestinal mucosa. It is also known that exogenous 5-HT can stimulate peristalsis. These observations have led some investigators(More)
BACKGROUND 5-HT3 antagonists, such as ondansetron (Zofran), retard colonic transit and provide effective relief of symptoms of chronic diarrhea and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but the mechanism by which ondansetron retards transit is unclear. What is clear is that the frequency of colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs) is reduced(More)
Recent studies have shown genetic deletion of the gene that synthesizes 5-HT in enteric neurons (tryptophan hydroxylase-2, Tph-2) leads to a reduction in intestinal transit. However, deletion of the Tph-2 gene also leads to major developmental changes in enteric ganglia, which could also explain changes in intestinal transit. We sought to investigate this(More)
In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, visceral pain is evoked more readily following distension of the colorectum. However, the identity of extrinsic afferent nerve pathway that detects and transmits visceral pain from the colorectum to the spinal cord is unclear. In this study, we identified which extrinsic nerve pathway(s) underlies nociception from(More)
In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of mammals, endings of spinal afferent neurons with cell bodies in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) detect many stimuli, including those that give rise to pain. Many of these sensory neurons express calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and TRPV1 in their cell bodies and axons. Indeed, CGRP and TRPV1 have been widely used as(More)
Endothelin peptides and their endogenous receptors play a major role in nociception in a variety of different organs. They also play an essential role in the development of the enteric nervous system. Mice with deletions of the endothelin-3 gene (lethal spotted mice, ls/ls) develop congenital aganglionosis. However, little is known about how nociception(More)
Recent studies have shown that endogenous serotonin is not required for colonic peristalsis in vitro, nor gastrointestinal (GI) transit in vivo. However, antagonists of 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors can inhibit peristalsis and GI-transit in mammals, including humans. This raises the question of how these antagonists inhibit GI-motility and transit,(More)
The patterns of motor activity that exist in isolated full-length human colon have not been described. Our aim was to characterize the spontaneous motor patterns in isolated human colon and determine whether these patterns are different in whole colons obtained from patients with slow-transit constipation (STC). The entire colon (excluding the anus), was(More)
The functional role of the different classes of visceral afferents that innervate the large intestine is poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that low-threshold, wide-dynamic-range rectal afferents play an important role in the detection and transmission of visceral pain induced by noxious colorectal distension in mice. However, it is not clear which(More)
BACKGROUND One major weakness in our understanding of pain perception from visceral organs is the lack of knowledge of the location, morphology and neurochemistry of all the different types of spinal afferent nerve endings, which detect noxious and innocuous stimuli. This is because we lack techniques to selectively label only spinal afferents. Our aim was(More)