Melba S. Palmero

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BACKGROUND In a previously published study, we found that large differentiated subpopulations of CD8 T-cells emerged rapidly after CMV infection in young infants and persisted throughout the following year. Here we describe a follow-up study conducted on the same infants to establish whether the differentiated subpopulations continued through the second(More)
BACKGROUND Placental malaria (PM) is associated with prenatal malaise, but many PM+ infants are born without symptoms. As malaria has powerful immunomodulatory effects, we tested the hypothesis that PM predicts reduced T-cell responses to vaccine challenge. METHODS We recruited healthy PM+ and PM- infants at birth. At six and 12 months, we stimulated(More)
We compared cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin 2 (IL-2), and CD154 CD4(+) T cell responses of infants to those from chronically infected adults and from children aged 4-5 years. Magnitudes of the responses were similar, although coexpression of IFN-gamma plus CD154 occurred more than coexpression of IFN-gamma plus IL-2(More)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection induces profound differentiation of T cells, and is associated with impaired responses to other immune challenges. We therefore considered whether CMV infection and the consequent T-cell differentiation in Gambian infants was associated with impaired specific responses to measles vaccination or polyclonal responses to the(More)
Infection with Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy contributes substantially to the disease burden in both mothers and offspring. Placental malaria may lead to intrauterine growth restriction or preterm delivery resulting in low birth weight (LBW), which, in general, is associated with increased infant morbidity and mortality. However, little is known(More)
BACKGROUND Measles vaccine in early infancy followed by a dose at 9 months of age protects against measles and enhances child survival through non-specific effects. Little is known of immune responses in the short or long term after booster doses. METHODS Infants were randomized to receive measles vaccine at 9 months of age (group 1) or 4 and 9 months of(More)
BACKGROUND Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are persistent herpesviruses that have various immunomodulatory effects on their hosts. Both viruses are usually acquired in infancy in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region where childhood vaccines are less effective than in high income settings. To establish whether there is an association between these(More)
BACKGROUND Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most prevalent congenital infection worldwide. Epidemiology and clinical outcomes are known to vary with socio-economic background, but few data are available from developing countries, where the overall burden of infectious diseases is frequently high. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS As part of(More)
The Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine has a poor record of efficacy in low-income tropical settings. Against this background, we evaluated the immune response of infants to mycobacterial antigens over the 2 years following BCG vaccination at birth by measuring the gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and CD154 responses of CD4 T cells. Similar(More)
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