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Hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES) is a primary immune deficiency characterized by abnormal and devastating susceptibility to a narrow spectrum of infections, most commonly Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Recent investigations have identified mutations in STAT3 in the majority of HIES patients studied. Despite the identification of the(More)
Engagement of cytokine receptors by specific ligands activate Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathways. The exact roles of STATs in human lymphocyte behavior remain incompletely defined. Interleukin (IL)-21 activates STAT1 and STAT3 and has emerged as a potent regulator of B cell differentiation. We have(More)
The production of immunoglobulin E (IgE) is tightly regulated. This is evidenced by the fact that it comprises less than 0.0001% of serum Ig, and aberrant production causes atopic conditions, including allergy, rhinitis, and anaphylaxis. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a well-characterized inducer of IgE by human and murine B cells, whereas interferon-gamma can(More)
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are critical for providing the necessary signals to induce differentiation of B cells into memory and Ab-secreting cells. Accordingly, it is important to identify the molecular requirements for Tfh cell development and function. We previously found that IL-12 mediates the differentiation of human CD4(+) T cells to the Tfh(More)
Maturation and selection of high-affinity B cell clones in the germinal center (GC) relies on support from T follicular helper (T(FH)) cells. T(FH) cells are characterized by their localization to the B cell follicle and their high expression of the costimulatory molecules ICOS and PD1 and the cytokine IL-21, which promotes immunoglobulin (Ig) class(More)
OBJECTIVE This study examines the use of HLA typing for the diagnosis of celiac disease in a group of Australians with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects included 131 sequential patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age 17 years [range 10-37]), 77 patients with biopsy-proven celiac disease (mean age 52 years [range 12-84]), and 162(More)
Pigmented hypertrichotic dermatosis with insulin-dependent diabetes (PHID) syndrome is a recently described autosomal recessive disorder associated with predominantly antibody negative, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In order to identify the genetic basis of PHID and study its relationship with glucose metabolism, we performed homozygosity mapping in(More)
Long-lived antibody memory is mediated by the combined effects of long-lived plasma cells (PCs) and memory B cells generated in response to T cell-dependent antigens (Ags). IL-10 and IL-21 can activate multiple signaling pathways, including STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5; ERK; PI3K/Akt, and potently promote human B cell differentiation. We previously showed that(More)