Melanie Stollstorff

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Implicit learning, the non-conscious acquisition of sequential and spatial environmental regularities, underlies skills such as language, social intuition, or detecting a target in a complex scene. We examined relationships between a variation of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene (SLC6A3), which influences dopamine transporter expression in the striatum,(More)
Cognitive neuroscience studies of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) suggest multiple loci of pathology with respect to both cognitive domains and neural circuitry. Cognitive deficits extend beyond executive functioning to include spatial, temporal, and lower-level "nonexecutive" functions. Atypical functional anatomy extends beyond(More)
Functional connectivity between brain regions can define large-scale neural networks and provide information about relationships between those networks. We examined how relationships within and across intrinsic connectivity networks were 1) sensitive to individual differences in dopaminergic function, 2) modulated by cognitive state, and 3) associated with(More)
Many researchers have noted that the functional architecture of the human brain is relatively invariant during task performance and the resting state. Indeed, intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) revealed by resting-state functional connectivity analyses are spatially similar to regions activated during cognitive tasks. This suggests that patterns of(More)
Inheriting two (10/10) relative to one (9/10) copy of the 10-repeat allele of the dopamine transporter genotype (DAT1) is associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, a childhood disorder marked by poor executive function. We examined whether functional anatomy underlying working memory, a component process of executive function, differed by(More)
Children with epilepsy have known deficits on objective measures of learning and memory. Parents and children report that memory deficits have a negative impact on everyday functioning. In adults with epilepsy, self-report of memory is more strongly associated with depression than performance on memory tests. We investigated the cognitive and psychological(More)
While the role of left prefrontal cortex in reasoning tasks has long been recognized, the role of right prefrontal cortex remains unclear. One patient study [Goel, V., Tierney, M., Sheesley, L., Bartolo, A., Vartanian, O., & Grafman, J. (2007). Hemispheric specialization in human prefrontal cortex for resolving certain and uncertain inferences. Cerebral(More)
Right lateral prefrontal cortex (rlPFC) has previously been implicated in logical reasoning under conditions of conflict. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was conducted to explore its role in conflict more precisely. Specifically, we distinguished between belief-logic conflict and belief-content conflict, and examined the role of rlPFC(More)
The serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) influences emotional reactivity and attentional bias toward or away from emotional stimuli, and has been implicated in psychopathological states, such as depression and anxiety disorder. The short allele is associated with increased reactivity and attention toward negatively-valenced emotional information, whereas(More)
Reasoning often occurs under emotionally charged, opinion-laden circumstances. The belief-bias effect indexes the extent to which reasoning is based upon beliefs rather than logical structure. We examined whether emotional content increases this effect, particularly for adults genetically predisposed to be more emotionally reactive. SS/SL(G) carriers of the(More)