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We report a highly sensitive means of measuring cellular dynamics with a novel interferometer that can measure motional phase changes. The system is based on a modified Michelson interferometer with a composite laser beam of 1550-nm low-coherence light and 775-nm CW light. The sample is prepared on a coverslip that is highly reflective at 775 nm. By(More)
Pollination is a crucial plant–animal interaction in ecosystems, and moths (Lepidoptera) are a widespread and species-rich group of flower visitors. In this article, plant and moth species connected via pollination interactions were identified from the literature, and information on the relevance of moth pollination in various ecosystems, including(More)
Herbicides are widely used pesticides that affect plants by changing their chemistry. In doing so, herbicides might also influence the quality of plants as food for herbivores. To study the effects of herbicides on host plant quality, 3 plant species (Plantago lanceolata L., P. major L., and Ranunculus acris L.) were treated with sublethal rates of either a(More)
Field margins are important seminatural habitats in agro-ecosystems, but they can be negatively affected by pesticide inputs via direct overspray and spray drift. In Germany, risk mitigation measures (like buffer zones) to reduce pesticide inputs in terrestrial noncrop habitats do not have to be put in place by farmers next to narrow field margins (<3 m(More)
Techniques for measuring local plasma potential, density, and temperature of pure-electron plasmas using emissive and Langmuir probes are described. The plasma potential is measured as the least negative potential at which a hot tungsten filament emits electrons. Temperature is measured, as is commonly done in quasineutral plasmas, through the(More)
"Three-dimensional Bayesian geostatistical aquifer characterization at the Hanford 300 Area using tracer test data" (2012). US Department of Energy Publications. Paper 309. [1] Tracer tests performed under natural or forced gradient flow conditions can provide useful information for characterizing subsurface properties, through monitoring, modeling, and(More)
Traits are widely used to detect and explain responses of ecosystem processes to environmental changes. Various studies use trait data from databases, often providing one value per trait and species, neglecting intraspecific trait variability along spatio-temporal gradients. Handbooks for standardized trait measurements claim that traits should be measured(More)
The first detailed experimental study of an instability driven by the presence of a finite ion fraction in an electron-rich non-neutral plasma confined on magnetic surfaces is presented. The instability has a poloidal mode number m=1, implying that the parallel force balance of the electron fluid is broken and that the instability involves rotation of the(More)
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