Melanie Merk

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Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine that also modulates physiologic cell signaling pathways. MIF is expressed in cardiomyocytes and limits cardiac injury by enhancing AMPK activity during ischemia. Reperfusion injury is mediated in part by activation of the stress kinase JNK, but whether MIF modulates JNK in this(More)
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pivotal regulator of the immune response. Neutralization or genetic deletion of MIF does not completely abrogate activation responses, however, and deletion of the MIF receptor, CD74, produces a more pronounced phenotype than MIF deficiency. We hypothesized that these observations may be explained by a(More)
BACKGROUND Elderly patients are more sensitive than younger patients to myocardial ischemia, which results in higher mortality. We investigated how aging affects the cardioprotective AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. METHODS AND RESULTS Ischemic AMPK activation was impaired in aged compared with young murine hearts. The expression and(More)
Parasitic organisms have evolved specialized strategies to evade immune defense mechanisms. We describe herein an ortholog of the cytokine, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which is produced by the obligate intracellular parasite, Leishmania major. The Leishmania MIF protein, Lm1740MIF, shows significant structural homology with human MIF as(More)
D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT) is a newly described cytokine and a member of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) protein superfamily. MIF is a broadly expressed pro-inflammatory cytokine that regulates both the innate and the adaptive immune response. MIF activates the MAP kinase cascade, modulates cell migration, and counter-acts the(More)
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a leaderless protein that is secreted from cells by a specialized, nonclassical export pathway. The release of MIF nevertheless is regulated and its production in response to different inflammatory, mitogenic, and hormonal stimuli plays an important role in diverse physiologic and pathologic processes. We(More)
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an immunoregulatory cytokine, the effect of which on arresting random immune cell movement was recognized several decades ago. Despite its historic name, MIF also has a direct chemokine-like function and promotes cell recruitment. Multiple clinical studies have indicated the utility of MIF as a biomarker for(More)
UNLABELLED The role of the cytokine, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and its receptor, CD74, was assessed in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Two MIF promoter polymorphisms, a functional -794 CATT5-8 microsatellite repeat (rs5844572) and a -173 G/C single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs755622), were analyzed in DNA(More)
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an upstream activator of the immune response that counter-regulates the immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids. While MIF is released by cells in response to diverse microbial and invasive stimuli, evidence that glucocorticoids in low concentrations also induce MIF secretion suggests an additional(More)
The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-homologue D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT) recently has been described to have similar functions as MIF. However, the role of D-DT, as opposed to MIF, in tumor biology remains unknown. We hypothesized that D-DT could represent a target for therapeutic interventions in cancer. We analyzed the production of D-DT(More)