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Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive sphingolipid elevated in asthmatic airways, is increasingly recognized as playing an important role in respiratory disease. S1P activates receptor-mediated signaling to modulate diverse cellular functions and promote airway inflammation. Although many of the stimulatory pathways activated by S1P have been(More)
Airway inflammation and respiratory infections are important factors contributing to disease exacerbation in chronic airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells express Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and may be involved in the amplification of airway inflammatory responses during infectious(More)
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition. Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system offers promise as a anti-inflammatory strategy, being responsible for the degradation of key proteins involved in crucial cellular functions, including gene expression in inflammation (e.g. inhibitory IkappaB-alpha and the endogenous MAPK deactivator - MKP-1). As MKP-1(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Airway remodelling is a consequence of long-term inflammation and MAPKs are key signalling molecules that drive pro-inflammatory pathways. The endogenous MAPK deactivator--MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP-1)--is a critical negative regulator of the myriad pro-inflammatory pathways activated by MAPKs in the airway. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH(More)
Airway smooth muscle (ASM) plays an important immunomodulatory role in airway inflammation in asthma. In our previous in vitro studies in ASM cells delineating the pro-inflammatory mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways activated by tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), we observed that TNFα concomitantly induces the rapid, but transient,(More)
SB203580 is the prototypical p38 MAPK inhibitor; however it cannot be used clinically due to liver toxicity. We developed a structural analogue of SB203580 - ML3403 - with equal in vitro and ex vivo p38alpha MAPK inhibition as SB203580, but with reduced activity towards liver cytochrome P450 enzymes. In addition, we developed a selective p38alpha MAPK(More)
Signal transduction modulates expression and activity of cholesterol transporters. We recently demonstrated that the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade regulates protein stability of Scavenger Receptor BI (SR-BI) through Proliferator Activator Receptor (PPARα) -dependent degradation pathways. In addition, MAPK (Mek/Erk 1/2)(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) represses MAPK-driven signalling and plays an important anti-inflammatory role in asthma and airway remodelling. Although MKP-1 is corticosteroid-responsive and increased by cAMP-mediated signalling, the upregulation of this critical anti-inflammatory protein by long-acting β2-agonists and(More)
Inflammasomes have emerged as playing key roles in inflammation and innate immunity. A growing body of evidence has suggested that the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is important in chronic airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Inflammasome activation results, in part, in(More)
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid that plays an important proinflammatory role in asthmatic airways. Corticosteroids are first-line antiinflammatories in asthma; however, their repressive effects on S1P-induced cytokine secretion have not been investigated. To address this, our in vitro study reveals the molecular mechanisms by which(More)
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