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Aging affects all levels of neural processing, including changes of intracortical inhibition and cortical excitability. Paired-pulse stimulation, the application of two stimuli in close succession, is a useful tool to investigate cortical excitability in humans. The paired-pulse behavior is characterized by the second response being significantly suppressed(More)
OBJECTIVE In a previous study, we found bilateral disinhibition in the motor cortex of patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). This finding suggests a complex dysfunction of central motor-sensory circuits. The aim of our present study was to assess possible bilateral excitability changes in the somatosensory system of patients with CRPS. (More)
There is evidence that inflammatory processes are involved in at least the early phase of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). We compared a panel of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in skin blister fluids and serum from patients with CRPS and patients with upper-limb pain of other origin (non-CRPS) in the early stage (< 1 year) and after 6 months of(More)
Migraine is a common ictal disorder with an interindividual heterogeneous characteristic, whose underlying mechanisms remain elusive. On the one hand migraine is associated with abnormal cortical hyperexcitability. On the other hand, studies reported lower amplitudes of visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) and concluded that low preactivation levels imply(More)
Paired-pulse techniques are a common tool to investigate the excitability of the cerebral cortex. Whereas in the motor system short interval intracortical inhibition assessed by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation clearly could be demonstrated to be generated within the motor cortex, the mechanism of paired-pulse inhibition measured over the(More)
SUMMARY At early stages, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is clinically characterized by damage of peripheral tissues and nerves (edema, activation of osteoblasts, hyperalgesia to blunt pressure). These signs are the result of a dysbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, which normalizes approximately 6 months after the beginning of the(More)
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive stimulation method that has been shown to modulate the excitability of the motor and visual cortices in human subjects in a polarity dependent manner in previous studies. The aim of our study was to investigate whether anodal and cathodal tDCS can also be used to modulate the excitability of(More)
BACKGROUND Phosphene thresholds (PT) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as well as paired-pulse suppression (PPS) of visually evoked potentials (VEP) are used to characterize visual cortex excitability, however, their relation remains unknown. METHODS We measured PT after single TMS over the occipital lobe, and recorded VEPs after(More)
The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and(More)
OBJECTIVE Paired-pulse somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) are a common tool to investigate excitability in the human somatosensory cortex. Comparing literature about paired-pulse SEP, there is no standard set of stimulation parameters, while little is known about the influence of stimulation parameters on paired-pulse suppression. METHODS We analyzed(More)