The Vibrio parahaemolyticus type III effector VopS is implicated in cell rounding and the collapse of the actin cytoskeleton by inhibiting Rho guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases). We found that VopS could act to covalently modify a conserved threonine residue on Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 with adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP). The resulting AMPylation prevented… (More)
BACKGROUND The Vibrio parahaemolyticus type III secreted effector VopS contains a fic domain that covalently modifies Rho GTPase threonine with AMP to inhibit downstream signaling events in host cells. The VopS fic domain includes a conserved sequence motif (HPFx[D/E]GN[G/K]R) that contributes to AMPylation. Fic domains are found in a variety of species,… (More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to regulate viral infection, but the miRNAs that target intracellular sensors and adaptors of innate immunity have not been fully uncovered. Here we conduct an miRNA mimic screen and validation with miRNA inhibitors in cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to identify miRNAs that regulate viral-host… (More)
During epithelial infections, pathogenic bacteria employ an array of strategies to attenuate and evade host immune responses, including the influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; neutrophils). Among the most common bacterial infections in humans are those of the urinary tract, caused chiefly by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). During the… (More)
The Brief Case: A reactive HIV rapid antibody test in a pregnant woman.