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Determining whether a person with stroke has reached their full potential for recovery is difficult. While techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and MRI have some prognostic value, their role in rehabilitation is undefined. This study used TMS and MRI to determine which factors predict functional potential, defined as an individual's(More)
Clinicians report that patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often have difficulty with tasks requiring sustained attention, and there are neuroanatomical and neurophysiological reasons to expect such deficits. Nevertheless, laboratory measures of sustained attention or vigilance in TBI have produced conflicting results. These inconsistencies may be(More)
Attention deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are common and disabling. Many pharmacologic agents have been used to ameliorate attention deficits, and considerable interest has focused on methylphenidate (MP) because of its documented efficacy in attention deficit disorder. However, clinical studies of MP in subjects with TBI have yielded mixed(More)
After stroke, the function of primary motor cortex (M1) between the hemispheres may become unbalanced. Techniques that promote a re-balancing of M1 excitability may prime the brain to be more responsive to rehabilitation therapies and lead to improved functional outcomes. The present study examined the effects of Active-Passive Bilateral Therapy (APBT), a(More)
OBJECTIVE Motor imagery may activate the primary motor cortex (M1) and promote functional recovery following stroke. We investigated whether the hemisphere affected by stroke affects performance and M1 activity during motor imagery. METHODS Twelve stroke patients (6 left, 6 right hemisphere) and eight healthy age-matched adults participated. Experiment 1(More)
Coincident hand and foot movements are more reliably performed in the same direction than in opposite directions. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to assess motor cortex function, we examined the physiological basis of these movements across three novel experiments. Experiment 1 demonstrated that upper limb corticomotor excitability changed in(More)
Most studies of motor imagery have examined motor cortex function during imagery of dominant hand movement. The aim of this study was to examine the modulation of excitability in the dominant and non-dominant corticomotor pathways during kinesthetic motor imagery of unimanual and bimanual movement. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied over(More)
Clinicians and families report that traumatic brain injury results in a variety of attention deficits. Numerous laboratory studies have documented slowing of information processing, alteration in event-related potentials, or difficulty attending to specific relevant task dimensions in the presence of redundant information. However, little is known about how(More)
The objective of this study was to investigate reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) parameters for three coil systems; hand-held circular and figure-of-eight and navigated figure-of-eight coils. Stimulus response curves, intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (ICF) were studied in the right first dorsal interosseus muscle of 10(More)
Clinical assessments of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) typically report attentional difficulties, with distractibility prominent among these complaints. However, laboratory-based measures have often failed to find disproportionate distraction among patients with TBI, as compared to control participants. In this experiment, we tested 21(More)