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We have genotyped 14,436 nonsynonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) and 897 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) tag SNPs from 1,000 independent cases of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), multiple sclerosis (MS) and breast cancer (BC). Comparing these data against a common control dataset derived from 1,500 randomly selected healthy British(More)
A genome-wide map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and a pattern of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between their alleles are being established in three main ethnic groups. An important question is the applicability of such maps to different populations within a main ethnic group. Therefore, we have developed high-resolution SNP, haplotype and LD maps(More)
We combined two tuberculosis genome-wide association studies from Ghana and The Gambia with subsequent replication in a combined 11,425 individuals. rs4331426, located in a gene-poor region on chromosome 18q11.2, was associated with disease (combined P = 6.8 x 10(-9), odds ratio = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.13-1.27). Our study demonstrates that genome-wide(More)
BACKGROUND Currently there is increasing recognition of the need for research in developing countries where disease burden is high. Understanding the role of local factors is important for undertaking ethical research in developing countries. We explored factors relating to information and communication during the process of informed consent, and the(More)
The immaturity of the immune system increases the susceptibility of young infants to infectious diseases and prevents the induction of protective immune responses by vaccines. We previously reported that Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination induces a potent Th1 response to mycobacterial Ags in newborns. In this study, we evaluated(More)
This article reviews peer-reviewed publications and book chapters on the history, epidemiology, genetics, ecology, pathogenesis, pathology and management of podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis). Podoconiosis is a non-infectious geochemical elephantiasis caused by exposure of bare feet to irritant alkalic clay soils. It is found in at least 10(More)
After imputation of data from the 1000 Genomes Project into a genome-wide dataset of Ghanaian individuals with tuberculosis and controls, we identified a resistance locus on chromosome 11p13 downstream of the WT1 gene (encoding Wilms tumor 1). The strongest signal was obtained at the rs2057178 SNP (P = 2.63 × 10(-9)). Replication in Gambian, Indonesian and(More)
Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination induces a marked increase in the interferon (IFN)-gamma response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (Mtb PPD) in UK adolescents, but not in Malawian adolescents. We hypothesized that Mtb PPD-induced IFN-gamma after BCG vaccination would be similar in infants from these 2 countries. Infants(More)
SETTING Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Studies in a murine model of pulmonary TB have identified a role for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the development of chronic lung infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The Asp299Gly polymorphism in the human TLR4 gene is associated with in vivo hyporesponsiveness to(More)
BACKGROUND BCG vaccination of infants is thought to provide good protection in all settings. This study investigated whether Malawian infants made weaker responses across a cytokine panel after BCG vaccination, compared with UK infants. METHODS Diluted whole-blood samples were cultured with Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative for 6 days(More)