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Rats will approach and contact a lever whose insertion into the chamber signals response-independent food delivery. This "autoshaping" or "sign-tracking" phenomenon has recently attracted considerable attention as a platform for studying individual differences in impulsivity, drug sensitization, and other traits associated with vulnerability to drug(More)
OBJECTIVE Over 40-million Americans are undiagnosed, misdiagnosed, or untreated for sleep disorders. Despite the growing need to integrate sleep medicine knowledge into the medical education curriculum, educational leaders have struggled to incorporate contemporary medical topics such as sleep medicine into the already packed curricula. We set out to(More)
Initially neutral conditioned stimuli (CSs) paired with food often acquire motivating properties. For example, CS presentations may enhance the rate of instrumental responding that normally earns that food reward (Pavlovian-instrumental transfer), or potentiate consumption of that food when the animal is food-sated. Recent evidence suggests that cues(More)
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