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Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases comprise a family of ubiquitous proline-directed, protein-serine/threonine kinases, which participate in signal transduction pathways that control intracellular events including acute responses to hormones and major developmental changes in organisms. MAP kinases lie in protein kinase cascades. This review discusses(More)
Microtubule-associated proteins (MAP), such as tau, modulate the extent and rate of microtubule assembly and play an essential role in morphogenetic processes, such as axonal growth. We have examined the mechanism by which tau affects microtubule polymerization by examining the kinetics of microtubule assembly and disassembly through direct observation of(More)
We recently described the purification and cloning of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), which appears to play a pivotal role in converting tyrosine phosphorylation into the serine/threonine phosphorylations that regulate downstream events. We now describe cloning and characterization of two ERK1-related kinases, ERK2 and ERK3, and provide(More)
The structure of the active form of the MAP kinase ERK2 has been solved, phosphorylated on a threonine and a tyrosine residue within the phosphorylation lip. The lip is refolded, bringing the phosphothreonine and phosphotyrosine into alignment with surface arginine-rich binding sites. Conformational changes occur in the lip and neighboring structures,(More)
Although the function of the p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway in long-term potentiation at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses has been well described, relatively little is known about the importance of the p38 MAP kinase pathway in synaptic plasticity. Here we show that the p38 MAP kinase pathway, a parallel signaling cascade activated by(More)
The MAP kinase ERK2 is widely involved in eukaryotic signal transduction. Upon activation it translocates to the nucleus of the stimulated cell, where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. We find that nuclear accumulation of microinjected ERK2 depends on its phosphorylation state rather than on its activity or on upstream components of its signaling pathway.(More)
Interaction with SV40 small tumor antigen (small t) compromised the ability of multimeric protein phosphatase 2A to inactivate the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1 and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase MEK1. Transient expression of small t in CV-1 cells activated MEK and ERK but did not affect Raf activity. Small t stimulated the growth of(More)
A protein kinase characterized by its ability to phosphorylate microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP2), is thought to be an early intermediate in an insulin-stimulated phosphorylation cascade and in a variety of other mammalian cell responses to extracellular signals. A complementary DNA that encodes this protein serine-threonine kinase has been cloned, and(More)
We have previously shown that inhibition of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase severely attenuates the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) following engagement of integrin/fibronectin receptors and that Raf is the critical target of PI 3-kinase regulation [1]. To investigate how PI 3-kinase regulates Raf, we examined sites on Raf1(More)
WNKs (with-no-lysine [K]) are a family of serine-threonine protein kinases with an atypical placement of the catalytic lysine relative to all other protein kinases. The roles of WNK kinases in regulating ion transport were first revealed by the findings that mutations of two members cause a genetic hypertension and hyperkalemia syndrome. More recent studies(More)