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Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases comprise a family of ubiquitous proline-directed, protein-serine/threonine kinases, which participate in signal transduction pathways that control intracellular events including acute responses to hormones and major developmental changes in organisms. MAP kinases lie in protein kinase cascades. This review discusses(More)
Nearly all cell surface receptors utilize one or more of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in their repertoire of signal transduction mechanisms. Recent advances in the study of such cascades include the cloning of genes encoding novel members of the cascades, further definition of the roles of the cascades in responses to extracellular signals,(More)
We recently described the purification and cloning of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), which appears to play a pivotal role in converting tyrosine phosphorylation into the serine/threonine phosphorylations that regulate downstream events. We now describe cloning and characterization of two ERK1-related kinases, ERK2 and ERK3, and provide(More)
Microtubule-associated proteins (MAP), such as tau, modulate the extent and rate of microtubule assembly and play an essential role in morphogenetic processes, such as axonal growth. We have examined the mechanism by which tau affects microtubule polymerization by examining the kinetics of microtubule assembly and disassembly through direct observation of(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is phosphorylated at four sites in situ and in vivo, and the protein kinases that phosphorylate three of these sites (Ser8,Ser19,Ser40) have been identified. In intact cells, the phosphorylation of the fourth site (Ser31) is increased in response to phorbol esters or nerve growth factor (NGF). Here, we show that Ser31 is(More)
Nck, an adaptor protein composed of one SH2 and three SH3 domains, is a common target for a variety of cell surface receptors. We have identified a novel mammalian serine/threonine kinase that interacts with the SH3 domains of Nck, termed Nck Interacting Kinase (NIK). This kinase is most homologous to the Sterile 20 (Ste20) family of protein kinases. Of the(More)
The MAP kinase ERK2 is widely involved in eukaryotic signal transduction. Upon activation it translocates to the nucleus of the stimulated cell, where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. We find that nuclear accumulation of microinjected ERK2 depends on its phosphorylation state rather than on its activity or on upstream components of its signaling pathway.(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinases [MAPKs, also called extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs)] are constituents of numerous signal transduction pathways, and are activated by protein kinase cascades. Intense efforts are under way to develop and evaluate compounds that target components of MAPK pathways. In this article, the current status of(More)