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Microtubule-associated proteins (MAP), such as tau, modulate the extent and rate of microtubule assembly and play an essential role in morphogenetic processes, such as axonal growth. We have examined the mechanism by which tau affects microtubule polymerization by examining the kinetics of microtubule assembly and disassembly through direct observation of(More)
We recently described the purification and cloning of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), which appears to play a pivotal role in converting tyrosine phosphorylation into the serine/threonine phosphorylations that regulate downstream events. We now describe cloning and characterization of two ERK1-related kinases, ERK2 and ERK3, and provide(More)
Although the function of the p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway in long-term potentiation at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses has been well described, relatively little is known about the importance of the p38 MAP kinase pathway in synaptic plasticity. Here we show that the p38 MAP kinase pathway, a parallel signaling cascade activated by(More)
The MAP kinase ERK2 is widely involved in eukaryotic signal transduction. Upon activation it translocates to the nucleus of the stimulated cell, where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. We find that nuclear accumulation of microinjected ERK2 depends on its phosphorylation state rather than on its activity or on upstream components of its signaling pathway.(More)
The structure of the active form of the MAP kinase ERK2 has been solved, phosphorylated on a threonine and a tyrosine residue within the phosphorylation lip. The lip is refolded, bringing the phosphothreonine and phosphotyrosine into alignment with surface arginine-rich binding sites. Conformational changes occur in the lip and neighboring structures,(More)
The structure of the MAP kinase ERK2, a ubiquitous protein kinase target for regulation by Ras and Raf, has been solved in its unphosphorylated low-activity conformation to a resolution of 2.3 A. The two domains of unphosphorylated ERK2 are farther apart than in the active conformation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and the peptide-binding site is blocked(More)
WNKs (with-no-lysine [K]) are a family of serine-threonine protein kinases with an atypical placement of the catalytic lysine relative to all other protein kinases. The roles of WNK kinases in regulating ion transport were first revealed by the findings that mutations of two members cause a genetic hypertension and hyperkalemia syndrome. More recent studies(More)
BACKGROUND Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are ubiquitous components of many signal transduction pathways. Constitutively active variants have been isolated for every component of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 MAP kinase pathway except for the ERK itself. RESULTS To create an activated ERK2 variant, we fused ERK2 to(More)
Current understanding of cell regulatory systems suggests a diverse array of extracellular stimuli commonly recruit a limited cadre of core signal transduction modules to drive discrete stimulus-specific responses. One such module is the Raf-MEK-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase cascade. Little information exists about how this pathway can(More)