Melanie H Cobb

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Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases comprise a family of ubiquitous proline-directed, protein-serine/threonine kinases, which participate in signal transduction pathways that control intracellular events including acute responses to hormones and major developmental changes in organisms. MAP kinases lie in protein kinase cascades. This review discusses(More)
Nearly all cell surface receptors utilize one or more of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in their repertoire of signal transduction mechanisms. Recent advances in the study of such cascades include the cloning of genes encoding novel members of the cascades, further definition of the roles of the cascades in responses to extracellular signals,(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulate diverse cellular programs including embryogenesis, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis based on cues derived from the cell surface and the metabolic state and environment of the cell. In mammals, there are more than a dozen MAPK genes. The best known are the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1(More)
We recently described the purification and cloning of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), which appears to play a pivotal role in converting tyrosine phosphorylation into the serine/threonine phosphorylations that regulate downstream events. We now describe cloning and characterization of two ERK1-related kinases, ERK2 and ERK3, and provide(More)
The structure of the active form of the MAP kinase ERK2 has been solved, phosphorylated on a threonine and a tyrosine residue within the phosphorylation lip. The lip is refolded, bringing the phosphothreonine and phosphotyrosine into alignment with surface arginine-rich binding sites. Conformational changes occur in the lip and neighboring structures,(More)
  • J A Frost, H Steen, +4 authors M H Cobb
  • The EMBO journal
  • 1997
Mitogens promote cell growth through integrated signal transduction networks that alter cellular metabolism, gene expression and cytoskeletal organization. Many such signals are propagated through activation of MAP kinase cascades partly regulated by upstream small GTP-binding proteins. Interactions among cascades are suspected but not defined. Here we show(More)
The MAP kinase ERK2 is widely involved in eukaryotic signal transduction. Upon activation it translocates to the nucleus of the stimulated cell, where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. We find that nuclear accumulation of microinjected ERK2 depends on its phosphorylation state rather than on its activity or on upstream components of its signaling pathway.(More)
Nck, an adaptor protein composed of one SH2 and three SH3 domains, is a common target for a variety of cell surface receptors. We have identified a novel mammalian serine/threonine kinase that interacts with the SH3 domains of Nck, termed Nck Interacting Kinase (NIK). This kinase is most homologous to the Sterile 20 (Ste20) family of protein kinases. Of the(More)
Induction of the human c-fos proto-oncogene by mitogens depends on the formation of a ternary complex by p62TCF with the serum response factor (SRF) and the serum response element (SRE). We demonstrate that Elk-1, a protein closely related to p62TCF in function, is a nuclear target of two members of the MAP kinase family, ERK1 and ERK2. Phosphorylation of(More)