Melanie C. Steffens

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One of the main advantages of measures of automatic cognition is supposed to be that they are less susceptible to faking than explicit tests. It is an empirical question, however, to what degree these measures can be faked, and the response might well differ for different measures. We tested whether the Implicit Association Test (IAT, Greenwald, McGhee, &(More)
Two experiments are reported which were designed to investigate the generality and the power of the mechanisms underlying sequence learning. In both experiments, participants reacted to systematic sequences of tones. They were informed that there was a tone systematicity. Participants were not told that the interval between a response to a tone and the(More)
Negative self-esteem is suggested to play an important role in the recurrence of depressive episodes. This study investigated whether repeated experiences of a negative view of the self within a recurrent course of depression might cause implicit self-esteem to be impaired and negative self-attributes to even be chronically activated beyond remission. We(More)
The introduction of the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) has stimulated numerous research activities. The IAT is supposed to measure the degree of association between concepts. Instances have to be assigned to these concepts by pressing appropriate keys as quickly as possible. The reaction time difference between certain(More)
Verb-object phrases are usually remembered better if they have been enacted during study than if theyhave been learned verbally or if one has observed another person enact the phrases. Researchers have explained this well-established enactment effect by assuming that enactment leaves an additional motor code enhancing memory. We assume instead that(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known regarding long-term bone deficit in relationship with the modalities of cancer therapy among survivors of childhood malignancy. METHODS Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated at lumbar spine (LS), total hip and femoral neck in 89 patients (44 men) more than 5 years after remission of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia(More)
Attitudes towards lesbians and gay men, as assessed with questionnaires, have become more and more positive in the last decades. An open question is, however, whether that trend reflects true change or rather a growing reluctance to admit negative attitudes (to others and self). New procedures measuring implicit attitudes may help find an answer. In three(More)
Implicit attitudes are conceived of as formed in childhood, suggesting extreme stability. At the same time, it has been shown that implicit attitudes are influenced by situational factors, suggesting variability by the moment. In the present article, using structural equation modeling, we decomposed implicit attitudes towards gay men into a person factor(More)
Better retention of self-produced as opposed to experimenter-presented material is called generation effect; the reverse phenomenon is the negative generation effect. Both are found in intentional-learning experiments in which generating versus reading is manipulated between subjects. The present article presents an overview of those findings and aims at(More)
The categories that social targets belong to are often activated automatically. Most studies investigating social categorization have used visual stimuli or verbal labels, whereas ethnolinguistic identity theory posits that language is an essential dimension of ethnic identity. Language should therefore be used for social categorization. In 2 experiments,(More)