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Asteroid 21 Lutetia was approached by the Rosetta spacecraft on 10 July 2010. The additional Doppler shift of the spacecraft radio signals imposed by 21 Lutetia's gravitational perturbation on the flyby trajectory were used to determine the mass of the asteroid. Calibrating and correcting for all Doppler contributions not associated with Lutetia, a(More)
Jupiter's nonthermal microwave emission, as measured by a global network of 11 radio telescopes, increased dramatically during the Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacts. The increase was wavelength-dependent, varying from approximately 10 percent at 70 to 90 centimeters to approximately 45 percent at 6 and 36 centimeters. The radio spectrum hardened (flattened toward(More)
One of Titan's most intriguing attributes is its copious but featureless atmosphere. The Voyager 1 fly-by and occultation in 1980 provided the first radial survey of Titan's atmospheric pressure and temperature and evidence for the presence of strong zonal winds. It was realized that the motion of an atmospheric probe could be used to study the winds, which(More)
Cometary nuclei consist mostly of dust and water ice. Previous observations have found nuclei to be low-density and highly porous bodies, but have only moderately constrained the range of allowed densities because of the measurement uncertainties. Here we report the precise mass, bulk density, porosity and internal structure of the nucleus of comet(More)
The atmosphere and ionosphere of Venus have been studied in the past by spacecraft with remote sensing or in situ techniques. These early missions, however, have left us with questions about, for example, the atmospheric structure in the transition region from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere (50-90 km) and the remarkably variable structure of(More)
Radio signals from Ulysses were used to probe the lo plasma torus (IPT) shortly after the spacecraft's closest approach to Jupiter. The frequencies of the two downlinks at S-band (2.3 gigahertz) and X-band (8.4 gigahertz) were recorded, differenced, and integrated in order to derive the columnar electron density of the IPT. The measurements agree(More)
We review the results from Mariner 10 regarding Mercury's gravity field and the results from radar ranging regarding topography. We discuss the implications of improving these results, including a determination of the polar component, as well as the opportunity to perform relativistic gravity tests with a future Mercury Orbiter. With a spacecraft placed in(More)
Peatland methane (CH4) fluxes may vary between plant types; however, in mixed communities, the specific role of each species is difficult to distinguish. The goal of this study was to determine the individual and interacting effect of moss, graminoid and shrub plant functional types on CH4 dynamics of experimentally planted plots in a rewetted minerotrophic(More)
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