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The epsilon4 allele of apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), perhaps through effects on amyloid-beta (Abeta) metabolism. Detailed analyses of various Abeta parameters in aging APP(V717F+/-) transgenic mice expressing mouse apoE, no apoE, or human apoE2, apoE3, or apoE4 demonstrate that apoE facilitates, but is not required(More)
Similarity in structure and sequence homology has led to the identification of new members of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) ligand and receptor superfamilies. IL-1F6, IL-1F8 and IL-1F9 have been shown to signal through IL-1R-related protein 2 and IL-1 receptor accessory protein leading to activation of NFkappaB, while IL-1F7 and IL-1F10 interact with the IL-18(More)
Identification of mutations that cause rare familial forms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and subsequent studies of genetic risk factors for sporadic PD have led to an improved understanding of the pathological mechanisms that may cause nonfamilial PD. In particular, genetic and pathological studies strongly suggest that alpha-synuclein, albeit very rarely(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by widespread alpha-synuclein pathology and neuronal loss, primarily of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Inflammation has been implicated in PD, and alpha-synuclein can initiate microglial activation; however, the kinetics and distribution of inflammatory responses to alpha-synuclein overexpression in vivo(More)
A human-human oligodendroglial cell line MO3.13 was chosen in this study to model the loss of oligodendrocytes that occurs during episodes of multiple sclerosis. The influence of mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) upon cell viability specifically the mode of cell death, whether by an active apoptotic mechanism or passive necrosis was determined by morphological(More)
Maintenance of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the brain, which is affected by the activation state of microglia, is important for maintenance of neuronal function. Evidence has suggested that IL-4 plays an important neuromodulatory role and has the ability to decrease lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial activation and the(More)
The presence of androgen receptors in thymocytes and the well-described effects of exogenous androgens on thymus size suggest a role for androgenic hormones in thymocyte growth and maturation. Testicular feminization (Tfm/Y) mice which bear a heritable defect in the androgen receptor protein were studied to investigate how androgens might influence immune(More)
The functional immunological consequences of thymic regeneration after castration were studied in adult male C57Bl/6 mice. Phenotypic profiles of thymocytes present in the enlarged thymuses of castrate animals demonstrated a significant decrease in the proportion of thymocytes positive for the suppressor/cytotoxic phenotype (CD4-CD8+; P = 0.005). Thymic(More)
Single-Ig-interleukin-1 related receptor (SIGIRR) is a member of the interleukin (IL)-1/Toll-like receptor (TLR) family. It negatively regulates inflammation, rendering SIGIRR(-/-) mice more susceptible to inflammatory challenge. This susceptibility extends to the brain, where increased responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide has been observed in(More)
Epidemiological studies suggest links between cholesterol metabolism and Alzheimer's disease (AD), with hypercholesterolemia associated with increased AD risk, and use of cholesterol-lowering drugs associated with decreased risk. Animal models using cholesterol-modifying dietary or pharmacological interventions demonstrate similar findings. Proposed(More)