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To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat(More)
Although the retina is thought to primarily rely on glucose for fuel, inherited deficiency of one or more activities of mitochondrial trifunctional protein results in a pigmentary retinopathy leading to vision loss. Many other enzymatic deficiencies in fatty acid oxidation pathways have been described, none of which results in retinal complications. The(More)
To elucidate the role of luminal nutrients and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in intestinal adaptation, rats were subjected to 70% midjejunoileal resection or ileal transection and were maintained with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or oral feeding. TPN rats showed small bowel mucosal hyperplasia at 8 h through 7 days after resection, demonstrating that(More)
Resveratrol has been proposed as a potential therapeutic to improve metabolic health during pregnancy, yet little is known about the fetal effects of this maternal dietary supplement. We hypothesized that when administered to pregnant nonhuman primates (NHPs), resveratrol would increase uterine blood flow and mitigate the harmful consequences of maternal(More)
Patients with severe short-bowel syndrome (SBS) often require long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) to maintain their nutritional status because of limited intestinal adaptation. Growth factors, including insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), are under investigation to promote intestinal adaptation and tolerance to oral feeding. We investigated(More)
Treatment recommendations in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) defects are diverse. With implementation of newborn screening and identification of asymptomatic patients, it is necessary to define whom to treat and how strictly. We here discuss critical questions that are currently under debate. For some asymptomatic long-chain defects, long-chain fat(More)
The objective of this study was to determine if children with phenylketonuria (PKU) have lower fatty acid concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid due to the phenylalanine restricted diet therapy compared to healthy control subjects. Dietary intake and fatty acid concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid were measured in twenty-one subjects (</=6 years of(More)
BACKGROUND Administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, but not growth hormone (GH), stimulates mucosal hyperplasia in surgically stressed rats with intestinal atrophy induced by hypocaloric total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Our aim was to characterize the basis for this disparity in enterotrophic action by assessing the relationships between(More)
Current dietary therapy for long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) or trifunctional protein (TFP) deficiency consists of fasting avoidance, and limiting long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) intake. This study reports the relationship of dietary intake and metabolic control as measured by plasma acylcarnitine and organic acid profiles in 10 children with(More)
Current dietary management of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD; long-chain-(S)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA:NAD+ oxido-reductase, EC 1.1.1.211) deficiency (LCHADD) is based on avoiding fasting, and minimizing energy production from long-chain fatty acids. We report the effects of various dietary manipulations on plasma and urinary laboratory values in(More)